Definitions in Phonetics
Phonetics deals with speech sounds themselves, how they are made (articulatory phonetics), how they are perceived (auditory phonetics) and the physics involved (acoustics phonetics). phonology
Phonology deals with how these speech sounds are organised into systems for each individual language; for example: how the sounds can be combined, the relations between them and how they affect each other.The speech organs
2. The lips ( Upper & lower )
3. The teeth ( Upper & lower)
4. The alveolar ridge: Between the top front teeth and the hard palate
5.The hard palate: Often called “the roof of the mouth”, a bony structure,hard and fixed in position
6. The soft palate: In a position that allows air to pass through the nose & through the mouth
7.The uvula: The end of the soft palate
8. The tongue: Can be moved into many different places and different shapes
9. The larynx: Contains 2 small bands of elastic tissue (vocal cords)
10. The pharynx: A tube beginning just above the larynx and ending in two, one part being the back of the mouth and the other being the beginning of the way though the nasal cavity
The most significant parts of the speech apparatus are the lungs, the vocal cords the oral cavity including the hard palat soft palate, the tongue, the lips and thenasal cavity.
How are speech sounds produced?
When we are making sounds, the air from the lungs comes up through the windwipe and arrives at the larynx. Then it goes through the vocal cords into the pharynx and up to the uvula. At this point, the air may go in either way. It may go into the oral cavity & get out through the mouth or it may go into the nasal cavity & get out through the nose.
How are oral sounds produced?
Oral sounds are the sounds in the production of which the soft palate is raised, blocking off the nasal cavity so that the airstream can only get out through the mouth.
How are nasal sounds produced?
Nasal sounds are the sounds in the production of which the soft palate is lowered, blocking off the oral cavity so that the airstream can only get out through the nose. There are only three nasal sounds in English
How are voiced sounds produced?
Voiced sounds are the sounds in the production of which the vocal cords come together so that the airstream is forced between them and the vocal cords vibrate.
How are voiceless sounds produced?
Voiceless sounds are the sounds in the production of which the vocal cords come apart so that the airstream passes freely between them and the vocal cords do not vibrate.
How are vowel sounds produced?
Vowel sounds are the sounds in the production of which none of the articulators come together so that the airstream is not obstructed and can get out freely.
How are consonant sounds produced ?
Consonant sounds are the sounds in the production of which two articulators come together so that the airstream is obstructed can not get out freely.