· You have seen that movie many times. · Have you seen that movie many times? · You have not seen that movie many times. لاحظ الجدول التالى جيدا :
Uses of the Tense : استخدامات هذا الزمن :
1- يستخدم هذا الزمن للتعبير عن
حدث تم و انتهى فى الزمن الماضى لكن وقت وقوع الحدث غير معلوم .
I have seen that movie twenty times. I think I have met him once before. There have been many earthquakes in California. People have traveled to the Moon. People have not traveled to Mars. Have you read the book yet? Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.
2- يستخدم هذا الزمن للتعبير عن فعل بدأ فى الزمن الماضى و مازال الحدث مستمرا إلى الوقت الحالى . ]
I have had a cold for two weeks. She has been in England for six months. Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl.
3- يعبر المضارع التام عن حدث تم و انتهى منذ فترة قصيرة مضت، باستخدام just ولاحظ أنها تستخدم بين جزئى الفعل.
He has just eaten lunch. They have just finished their exam.
4- يعبر المضارع التام عن حدث تم و انتهى فى الماضى و لكن مازال له أثر مستمر إلى الوقت الحالى .
The pharaohs have built the pyramids. I have exercised for 8years. علامات المضارع التام :
1- Since & For لاحظ أن for تعقبها فترة زمنية محددة أما since يأتى بعدها بداية لفترة زمنية أو تاريخ :
I have worked at this hospital for five years. I haven't seen my friend since 1999. He has studied English since 1998. They have waited for us at the airport for an hour.
لاحظ أن since إذا جاء معها فعل واحد فإنه يستخدم فى زمن المضارع التام و لكن إذا جاء معها فعلين فإنها تستخدم على حسب القاعدة التالية :
ماضى بسيط + since + مضارع تام
I have called you five times since I got back home . He has worked as a teacher since he graduated from school. 2- Ever & Never تستخدم ever فى السؤال و الجمل المثبتة بينما تستخدم never فى المجل المنفية و لاحظ أن كلا من ever & never توضع بين جزئى الفعل .
Have you ever seen Eiffel Tower ? This is the first time I have ever traveled to Paris . I have never spoken Spanish. 3- Already بالفعل و تستخدم لتأكيد حدوث الفعل و تستخدم already بين جزئى الفعل فقط فى الجمل المثبتة .
Þ I have already listened to this song before. Þ She has already done her homework. 4- حتى الآن Yet و تستخدم yet فى الجمل المنفية و الاستفهام .
Þ He hasn't come yet . They haven't eaten breakfast yet A- to describe a recent event (( لوصف حدث حدثَ قريباً )) مثلاً: اذا انتهيت من حل مسألة اعطاك اياها المدرس وانت بالمحاضرة : I HAVE FINISHED لأنك بالوقت الذي انهيت به المسألة أخبرت المدرس .. يوجد غلط يقع به بعض الطلاب أحياناً, فتجده عندما ينتهي من الحل يقول : I FINISHED وهذا غلط لأنه استخدم الماضي .. وكما ذكرت سابقاً ان من استخدامات المضارع التام ( وصف حدث حدثَ قبل وقت قريب) وأيضاً من الاغلاط الشائعة .. والتي يقع بها أكثر المبتدئين عند ما ينتهي من الحل يقول: I AM FINISHED وطبعاً هذا غلط كبير واكبر من اللي ذكرت في النقطة السابقة لأن هذا معناه ( انا منتهي ) يعني كأنك تقول أنا ميت !!!! وهذا مثال بسيط وبأمكانك استخدام المضارع التام على افعال كثيرة على نفس نمط هذا المثال الفارق بين “Since” و “For”: She has been out since 11 o’clock. She has been out for two hours. تعبر “since” عن نقطة في الزمن (a point in time) وتعني (منذ تلك النقطة الزمنية حتى وقت الكلام)، أي أنها تحدد نقطة بداية الفعل مثل: since yesterday, since last week, since June, since 1990, since he came, then, since 7 o’clock… أما “for” فتعبر عن فترة زمنية (a period of time) مثلما نقول: for an hour, for a week, for a long time, for a short time, for a while, for ages, for years, for months, for centuries… ملحوظة: يستخدم زمن المضارع التام مع الروابط التالية ليدل على المستقبل: after, before, when, as soon as, till, until As soon as I have finished my work, I will go back home. After I have learnt driving, I will buy a car -
ثالثاً: تمارين: تمرين رقم 1: صحح الفعل بين القوسين: 1. It is still dark because the sun not (rise) yet. 2. He (forgot) English since he (leave) England. 3. He (make) much progress since April. 4. Listen! I (hear) knocking at the door. 5. The plane that you (look) at now just (take) off for London. 6. Our village not (be) supplied with pure water yet. 7. My son not (start) work yet. He (be) still in the university. He (be) in it for three years. 8. I am sorry I not (write) for such a long time, but I (be) very busy lately. 9. How long you (be) here? 10. We (not meet) her for several months. تمرين رقم 2: ضع “since” أو “for” في مكانها المحدد: 1. She has been ill ….. two weeks. 2. I have not paid him the salary ……. June. 3. I have not studied my lessons …… the last week. 4. He has rung up three times …… lunch time. 5. I have not seen him …… he joined the army. 6. ……. their arrival, I have not met them. 7. I have not driven a car ……. my last accident. 8. It has rained …….. two hours. 9. I have not heard from them …….. 1998. 10. He has been absent from work ……… last month. 11. I have not seen him …….. years. I wonder where he is. 12. I have known that …….. a long time. 13. He has lived in Tanta ……… 1990. 14. That tree has been there …… 200 years. رابعاً: حلول التمارين: حل تمرين رقم 1: 1. It is still dark because the sun has not risen yet. 2. He has forgotten English since he left England. 3. He has made much progress since April. 4. Listen! I have heard knocking at the door. 5. The plane that you are looking at now has just taken off for London. 6. Our village has not been supplied with pure water yet. 7. My son has not started work yet. He is still in the university. He has been in it for three years. 8. I am sorry I have not written for such a long time, but I have been very busy lately. 9. How long have you been here? 10. We have not met her for several months. حل تمرين رقم 2: 1. She has been ill for two weeks. 2. I have not paid him the salary since June. 3. I have not studied my lessons since the last week. 4. He has rung up three times since lunch time. 5. I have not seen him since he joined the army. 6. Since their arrival, I have not met them. 7. I have not driven a car since my last accident. 8. It has rained for two hours. 9. I have not heard from them since 1998. 10. He has been absent from work since last month. 11. I have not seen him for years. I wonder where he is. 12. I have known that for a long time. 13. He has lived in Tanta since 1990. 14. That tree has been there for 200 - See more at: