Adjectives and adverbs A- Look at these examples: • Our holiday was too short - the time went very quickly. • The driver of the car was seriously injured in the accident. Quickly and seriously are adverbs. Many adverbs are made from an adjective + -ly: Adjective
heavily Not all words ending in -ly are adverbs. Some Adjectives end in -ly too, for example: Friendly / lively / elderly / lonely / silly / lovely B- adjective or adverb Adjectives (quick/careful etc.) tell us about a noun. We use Adjectives before nouns and after some verbs, especially be: • Tom is a careful driver, (not 'a carefully driver') • We didn't go out because of the heavy rain. • Please be quiet. • I was disappointed that my exam results were so bad. We also use Adjectives after the verbs look/ feel/ sound etc. • Why do you always look so serious? Compare: She speaks perfect English Adjective + noun Compare these sentences with look: • Tom lookedsad when I saw him. (= he seemed sad, his expression was sad) Adverbs (quickly/carefully etc.) tell us about a verb. An adverb tells us how somebody does something or how something happens: • Tom drove carefully along the narrow road, (not 'drove careful') • We didn't go out because it was raining heavily, (not 'raining heavy') • Please speak quietly, (not 'speak quiet') • I was disappointed that I did so badly on the exam, (not 'did so bad') • Why do you never take me seriously? She speaks English perfectly. Verb + object + adverb Tom looked at me sadly. (= he looked at me in a sad way) C- W e also use adverbs before Adjectives and other adverbs. For example: - reasonably cheap è (adverb + adjective) - terriblysorry è (adverb + adjective) - incredibly quickly è (adverb + adverb) • It's a reasonably cheap restaurant and the food is extremely good. • Oh, I'm terribly sorry. I didn't mean to push you. (not 'terrible sorry') • Maria learns languages incredibly quickly. • The examination was surprisingly easy. You can also use an adverb before a past participle (injured/ organised/ written etc.): • Two people were seriously injured in the accident, (not 'serious injured') • The meeting was very badly organised.
نقول باختصار عن الظروف أنها هي التي تدل علي كيفية حدوث الفعل أو مكانه أو زمانه (وقته) .
Adverbs are related to verbs , they tell : 1) how , 2) where , and , 3) when , the verbs are done.
1) How : like : fast , quickly
Ex: He runs fast. He did it very quickly.
2) When : like : next , now , yesterday
Ex: Next thing you should do is this. She went there yesterday. Do it now.
3) Where : like : nowhere , anywhere , here , there , out
Ex: I couldn't find it anywhere. Come here.
--- ومعظم الظروف في الانجليزي تنتهي ب ly مثل : He ran slowly
ولكن يوجد صفات تنتهي أيضا ب ly مثل : [A friendly person
--- والكلمات الآتية تعتبر ظروف (adverbs) :
Where , when , how , why , before , after , while , since , there , rarely , seldom , should , had , little , not only , nowhere , no sooner , never
Examples : Rarely has he done a good job.
Seldom do I eat butter.
Should they come , we wouldn't go out.
Had he prayed , he would have succeeded.
Not only did he succeed but he also got the best grade.
Never will I do that again.
Nowhere could they find her.
Adjectives الصفات أو النعوت
1) أهمها والمعروفة دائما هي descriptive أي الصفات أو النعوت التي تصف أسماء وهي لا تتأثر بعدد أو نوع الموصوف مثل red, young .
2) Quantitative صفة تبين كمية ويكون لاموصوف بعدها دائما مفرد مثل much , little , some , enough .
3) Numeral صفة تبين العدد وبالتالي سيكون الموصوف بعدها في الجمع مثل many , few , three , no .
4) Distributive مثل each , every .
5) Possessive أي صفات الملكية وهم My , your , his , her , its , our , your , their , whose
6) Demonstrative صفات الاشارة وهم : this للمفرد القريب ، that للمفرد البعيد ، these للجمع القريب ، those للجمع البعيد
7) Relative الصفات الموصولة وهمwhat, which, whatever, whichever ex : I had to wait for 4 hours , during which I watched a movie. 8) Interrogative صفات الاستفهام وهم what , which .
صيغة التفضيل في الظروف والنعوت (الصفات)
The Comparison of Adjectives and adverbs
عند وضع الظروف والصفات في صيغة التفضيل (المقارنة) :
--- في الكلمات الصغيرة (مقطع أو اثنين) نستخدم er أو est فمثلا نقول :
Rich , richer , the richest
لاحظ اضافة er لو واحد أغنى من آخر أو آخرين واضافة est لو واحد أغنى من الكل
--- أما في الكلمات التي تزيد عن مقطعين نستخدم more و most مثل :
Wonderful , more wonderful , the most wonderful
ولاحظ اننا دائما نضع the مع الأفضل
--- وتسمى الكلمة الأصلية (المجردة) positive والثانية تسمى comparative والثالثة تسمى superlative .
--- ومايلي هو جدول لبعض الظروف المنتظمة في تفضيلها (في مقارنتها)
The following is a table of comparison of some regular adverbs :
Positive Comparative Superlative
Fast Faster Fastest
Early Earlier Earliest
Quickly More quickly Most quickly
Hard Harder Hardest
High Higher Highest
--- ومايلي هو جدول لبعض الظروف الغير منتظمة في تفضيلها (في مقارنتها)
The following is a table of comparison of some irregular adverbs :
Positive Comparative Superlative
Well Better Best
Badly Worse Worst
Late Later Latest (last)
Little Less (lesser) Least
Much(many) More Most
--- ويوجد بعض الظروف التي لا تأتي في صيغة التفضيل، مثل Completely, immediately
--- ويوجد بعض الكلمات التي يمكن أن تستخدم كظروف ويمكن أن تستخدم أيضا كصفات ، مثل:
Fast , cheap , high , short , fine , straight , bright , flat , free , sharp , hard , late , loud , real Ex: A fast car runs fast.
--- ونلاحظ أن في حالتي ال adverbs وال adjectives :
1) إذا كانت الكلمة تنتهي ب Y قبله حرف متحرك تأخذ er أو est كبقية الكلمات ، أما إذا كان هناك حرف ساكن قبل ال y نحذف ال y ونضع مكانها I مثل :
Grey , greyer , greyest / busy , busier , busiest
2) أما إذا كانت الكلمة تنتهي بحرف ساكن غير الy وقبله حرف متحرك ، نضاعف الحرف الأخير ، مثل :big , bigger , biggest / hot , hotter , hottest
3) يمكن استخدام الكلمات التي تعني كمية قبل مقارنة الظروف والصفات ، وذلك مثل الكلمات :
a bit / a little / much / a lot / far
ex : He is much (a lot) richer than her / this watch is much more expensive than the other one / may you walk a bit (a little) more slowly / the discovery was far more dangerous than we thought at first.
وبالنسبة للصفات Adjectives
--- أذكر أن الصفات (adjectives) تصف اسماء ، أما الظروف (adverbs) ،_كما قلنا تصف أفعال ، مثال : Ex : He speaks perfect Arabic. He speaks Arabic perfectly.
--- يمكن عمل صفات بكثير من اللواحق (suffixes) ، وسنكتب بعض الأمثلة وستكون اللواحق بال bold
wonderful, patient, bored, blackened, reddish, tiresome, metallic, natural, active, friendly, Egyptian, American, Chinese , secondary , partial, interesting.
--- ومايلي هو جدول ببعض الصفات المنتظمة في تفضيلها :
The following is a table of comparison of some regular Adjectives :
Positive Comparative Superlative
Fast Faster Fastest
Young Younger Youngest
Friendly More friendly Most friendly
Beautiful More beautiful Most beautiful
Interesting More interesting Most interesting
--- ومايلي هو جدول ببعض الصفات الغير منتظمة في تفضيلها :
The following is a table of comparison of some irregular adjectives:
Positive Comparative Superlative
Good Better Best
Bad (ill) Worse Worst
Few (countable) Less (lesser)
Near Nearer Nearest (next)
Much (many) More Most
Far Farther (further) Farthest (furthest)
Late Later Latest (last)
Old Older (elder) Oldest (eldest)
Out Outer (utter) Outmost (utmost)
Up Upper Upmost
In Inner Inmost (innermost)
--- ويوجد بعض الصفات التي لا توضع في صيغة التفضيل مثل :Rectangular , correct
--- Sometimes we use two or more Adjectives together , ex : Roushdy lives in a nice new house .
--- بعض الصفات تنتهي ب –ed أو –ing ، حسب الكلام المستخدم
Some Adjectives end in –ed or –ing like , bored and boring , for we say: someone is –ed if something (or someone) is –ing , or , if something (or someone) is –ing it makes you –ed ,
ex : Zaki is bored with his job . / Zaki's job is boring .
Are you interested in buying a nice house ?
Did you meet anyone interesting at the club ?
Other Adjectives that can end in –ed or –ing are : satisfied , worried , excited , confused , annoyed , astonished , amazed , amused , terrified , depressed , shocked .
وهنا أيضا نلاحظ أن الصفات التي تنتهي ب Y قبله حرف ساكن تتحول إلي ied مثل worried, terrified ،
أما الصفات التي تنتهي ب y قبله حرف متحرك تبقى كما هي ونضيف لها ed مثل annoyed .
--- Sometimes we use Adjectives after some verbs , especially be and get , ex : be patient , be careful , I'm getting hungry .
Rule #1: Adjectives modify nouns; adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
You can recognize adverbs easily because many of them are formed by adding -ly to an adjective.
Here are some sentences that demonstrate some of the differences between an adjective and an adverb.
Richard is careless.
Here careless is an adjective that modifies the proper noun Richard.
Richard talks carelessly.
Here carelessly is an adverb that modifies the verb talks.
Priya was extremely happy.
Here happy is an adjective that modifies the proper noun Priya and extremely is an adverb that modifies the adjective happy.
adverbs can't modify nouns, as you can see from the following incorrect sentences.
He is a quietly man.
The correct sentence above should say, "He is a quiet man."
I have a happily dog.
The correct sentence above should say, "I have a happy dog."
Rule #2: An adjective always follows a form of the verb to be when it modifies the noun before the verb. Here are some examples that show this rule.
I was nervous.
She has been sick all week.
They tried to be helpful.
Rule #3: Likewise an adjective always follows a sense verb or a verb of appearance — feel, taste, smell, sound, look, appear, and seem — when it modifies the noun before the verb.
Sharon's cough sounds bad.
Here bad is an adjective that modifies the noun cough. Using the adverb badly here would not make sense, because it would mean her cough isn't very good at sounding.
Castor oil tastes awful.
Here awful is an adjective that modifies the noun oil. Using the adverb awfully here would not make sense, because it would mean that castor oil isn't very good at tasting.
The ocean air smells fresh.
Here fresh is an adjective that modifies the noun air. Using the adverb freshly here would not make sense, because it would mean that the air has a sense of smell that it uses in a fresh manner.
She seems unhappy today.
Here unhappy is an adjective that modifies the pronoun she. Using the adverb unhappily here would not make sense, because it would mean that she isn't very good at seeming.
Be careful to notice whether the word modifies the subject or the verb in the sentence. If the word modifies the subject, you should use an adjective. If the word modifies the verb, you should use an adverb. The difference is shown in the following pair of sentences.
This apple smells sweet.
Here sweet is an adjective that modifies the noun apple. Using the adverb sweetly here would not make sense, because it would mean that the apple can smell things in a sweet manner.
Your dog smells carefully.
Here carefully is an adverb that modifies the verb smells. Using the adjective careful here would not make sense, because it would mean that the dog gives off an odor of carefulness.
Avoiding Common Errors
Bad or Badly?
When you want to describe how you feel, you should use an adjective (Why? Feel is a sense verb;see rule #3 above). So you'd say, "I feel bad." Saying you feel badly would be like saying you play football badly. It would mean that you are unable to feel, as though your hands were partially numb.
Good or Well?
Good is an adjective, so you do not do good or live good, but you do well and live well. Remember, though, that an adjective follows sense-verbs and be-verbs, so you also feel good, look good, smell good, are good, have been good, etc. (Refer to rule #3 above for more information about sense verbs and verbs of appearance.)
Confusion can occur because well can function either as an adverb or an adjective. When well is used as an adjective, it means "not sick" or "in good health." For this specific sense of well, it's OK to say you feel well or are well — for example, after recovering from an illness. When not used in this health-related sense, however, well functions as an adverb; for example, "I did well on my exam."
Scarcely and hardly are already negative adverbs. To add another negative term is redundant, because in English only one negative is ever used at a time
They found scarcely any animals on the island. (not scarcely no...)
Hardly anyone came to the party. (not hardly no one...)
Sure or Surely?
Sure is an adjective, and surely is an adverb. Sure is also used in the idiomatic expression sure to be. Surely can be used as a sentence-adverb. Here are some examples that show different uses of sure and surely. Light blue arrows indicate Adjectives and green arrows indicate adverbs.
I am sure that you were there.
Here sure is an adjective that modifies the pronoun I.
He is surely ready to take on the project.
Here surely is an adverb that modifies the adjective ready.
She is sure to be a great leader.
Here sure to be is an idiomatic phrase that functions as an adjective that modifies the pronoun she.
Surely, environmental destruction has been one of the worst catastrophes brought about by industrial production.
Here surely is an adverb that modifies the verb has been.
Real or Really?
Real is an adjective, and really is an adverb. Here are some examples that demonstrate the difference between real and really.
She did really well on that test.
Here really is an adverb that modifies the adverb well.
Is she really going out with him?
Here really is an adverb that modifies the verb phrase going out.
Popular culture proposes imaginary solutions to real problems.
Here real is an adjective that modifies the noun problems.
Near or Nearly?
Near can function as a verb, adverb, adjective, or preposition. Nearly is used as an adverb to mean "in a close manner" or "almost but not quite." Here are some examples that demonstrate the differences between various uses of near and nearly.
The moment of truth neared.
Here neared is a verb in the past tense.
We are nearly finished with this project.
Here nearly is an adverb that modifies the verb finished.
The cat crept near.
Here near is an adverb of place that modifies the verb crept.
First cousins are more nearly related than second cousins.
Here nearly is an adverb that modifies the verb related.
The detective solves the mystery in a scene near the end of the movie.
Here near is a preposition. The prepositional phrase near the end of the movie modifies the noun scene
شكرا الكم ويا رب تفهموا وادا ممكن تنشروها لتعم الفائدة