Q. What is wudu ?
A. Wudu is a special way of washing exposed parts of the person. When one intends to perform Wudu for namaz, etc., he should, with clean water, first wash his hands up to the wrists, then gargle thrice and clean the teeth with a miswak or brush or with the fingers. Then put water in the nose and clean it with the left hand. Then wash face three times. Then wash both the hands up to the elbows and observe masah of head and the ears. Then wash both the feet up to the ankles. You have already read the complete method of Wudu in taleem-ul-islam's first part.
Q. Are all these things necessary to perform wudu ?
A. There are certain things that are necessary and without them qudu will not be complete. These are called fard there are other things which may be left out and the Wudu will be complete, though it will be naqis (improper). They are called sunnat. There are certain other things which bring more blessings of god or thawab but if left out, do not make much difference. These things are called mustahab (recommended as desirable).
Q. How many things are fard in wudu ?
A. There are four things fard in wudu; (1) washing the face from the forehead to the lower portion of the chin and from one ear to the other; (2) washing of both the arms up to the elbows; (3) doing masah, covering at least quarter of the head; (4) washing of both the feet up to ankles.
Q. How many things are sunnat in wudu ?
A. Eight things break the wudu. They are called nawaqis (breakers) of wudu: (1) discharging urine or stool, or coming out of anything from the mentioned parts; (2) discharge of gases; (3) flowing of blood or pus out of any part of the body; (4) vomiting in mouthful; (5) to sleep lying down or by resting the body against something; (6) to faint due to some illness or by any other reason; (7) becoming insane or going mad. (8) laughter in namaz also breaks qudu.
Q. What is mustahab in wudu ?
A. Five things are mustahab in Wudu : (1) to begin with from the right (many learned 'ulamas (theologians) consider this as sunnat. (this may be taken to be their strong opinion); (2) masah of the nape; (3) doing everything by himself personally without taking others' help; (4) to face qibla; (5) to do Wudu at clean and elevated place.
Q. How many things are makruh (obnoxious) in Wudu ?
A. Four things are makruh in Wudu : (1) doing Wudu at a dirty place; (2) cleaning the nose with the right hand; (3) talking of worldly affairs while doing Wudu and (4) doing Wudu in a way which is against sunnat.
Q. How many things break the wudu ?
A. Eight things break the wudu. They are called nawagis (breakers) of wudu:
(1) discharging urine or stool, or coming out of anything from the mentioned parts; (2) discharge of gases; (3) flowing of blood or pus out of anything part of the body; (4) vomiting in mouthful; (5) to sleep lying down or by resting the body against something; (6) to faint due to some illness or by any other reason; (7) becoming insane or going mad. (8) laughter in namaz also breaks wudu.
Q. How to do wudu?
A. Sit at a high place. Take clean water in a clean pot. It is better to face qibla. If there is no chance for it, there is no harm. Roll up your sleeves up to your elbows then recite bismillah and wash both the hands up to wrists three times. Then gargle three times and brush your teeth. If you do not have a brush or miswak, rub yur teeth by your fingers. Then put water into your nostrils three times and clean them by your left little finger, then wash your face three times.
Do not splash water on your face with force; but run water on forehead softly and wash from the forehead down to the chin and on the either side of the face up to the ears. Then wash right hand including the elbow three times, then wash the left hand in the same way. Then wet your hands and pass them over the head, ears and the neck. It is called masah. Masah should be done on each part only once. Then wash each foot three times up to the ankle, first the right foot, then the left.
Q . What is the minimum that may be called washing ?
A. Pouring so much water on a part that it becomes wet and one or two drops of water do fall. If you use lesser water than this , it will not be called washing in the real sense . For example, if one passes his wet hands on his face or one throws so little water on his face that it remains on the skin and no drop falls down , it will not be said that he has washed his face and Wudu will not be done .
Q. How many times the parts be washed whose washing if fard (compulsory) ?
A. Washing once is fard , washing three times is sunnat (according to sunnah). More than that is not allowed , it is , wasting , and that is mukruh.
Q. Washing of what portion of the face is compulsory ?
A. From the hairy part of the forehead to down under the chin , and from the one ear-lobe to the other.
Q. If some part the washing of which is fard , remains dry, will Wudu be all right ?
A. The Wudu will not be complete if a hair-breadth of space is left dry.
Q. If one has six fingers, is it fard to wash the sixth finger ?
A. Yes. It is fard. If there is an overgrowth on any part whose washing is fard, the washing of the overgrowth also becomes fard.
Q. Waht is meant by doing masah ?
A. Passing wet hand over a part of the body is called masah.
Q. Is it necessary to wet one's hand afresh for masah of the head or the wetness already existing will suffice?
A. It is better to take fresh water, but if the hand is wet after washing, masah is allowed with it. It is not allowed to do masah with the hand with which masah has already been done. Masah will not be allowed with the hand that was dry, but was moistened by any other part, on which masah had been done or was washed.
Q. If rain drops fall on the bare head and one passes his dry hand over the head and the rain water spreads, will the masah be taken to be done or not ?
A. Then the masah is done.
Q. It is fard to wash inside the eyes in wudu ?
A. It is not fard to wash inside eyes.
Q. If one, after wudu, shaves his head or cuts finger-nails, will it be necessary to do fresh masah of the head or wash the finger-nails again?
Q. If ones hand is cut off from below the elbow, is it necessary to wash that hand ?
A. Yes, if the elbow or any part below of it remains in the arm, the washing of the elbow and the remaining portion is fard.
Q. What is the ruling if one did not do niyat before Wudu ?
A. If one did not do the niyat and he fell into the river or stood in rain and the water passed over all the parts, washing of which is compulsory in wudu. Wudu will be done and he can say his namaz. But the person will not get the blessings of wudu.
Q. How to do niyat for wudu ?
A. Niyat means to intend to do something. When one begins to do Wudu he should have the intention to remove najasat and to become tahir to say namaz. This "intention" is the niyat of wudu.
Q. Is it necessary to say niyat or just thinking of it will be enough ?
A. It is not necessary to say. If one says, that too, will be correct.
Q. If one has Wudu but does anew what shall be his niyat ?
A. The niyat should be that he is doing Wudu over Wudu to enhance the blessing of allah and get more benefits.
A. Yes reciting bismillah in full or reciting is correct.
Q. How is it to do the miswak and what is the method of doing it ?
A. Miswak is sunnat mu'akkeda. There are great blessings for it. It is also very beneficial. The miswak should be of a bitter taste from neem tree or piloo tree. It should not be more than eight inches long. Miswak should be washed before and after the use. Miswak should be applied, first to the right side of teeth and then to the left and should be done three times, and each time fresh water should be taken.
Q. How is it to gargle ?
A. Gargling is sunnat is Wudu and ghusal, but it should not be done when one is fasting. Water should be put into the mouth by the right hand.
Q. What is the method of putting water into the nose ?
A. The water should be taken into the right hand, placed below the nostrils and be taken in by inhaling. One should not inhale so much that water goes into the head. When one is fasting, he should pass water into the nostrils only by hand and not by inhaling. Passing water into the nose and gargling are sunnat mu'akkeda.
Q. To do khilal of what part of beard is sunnat ?
A. It is sunnat to do khilal in the inner and lower parts of the beard. Washing of hair which grow on the face of fard.
Q. How to do khilal of fingers ?
A. Khilal of fingers means that the fingers of one hand should be put into the fingers of the other hand and then be pulled out together. Khilal of the toes is done by the little finger of the left hand, beginning from the little toe of the right foot and ending with the little toe of the left foot.
Q. How to do masah of the whole head ?
A. Wet both hands and put them on each side of the forehead, below the hairy part. Then push your hands (palm alongwith fingers) up to the nape. Then bring them back to the forehead. Remember that they should have passed over the whole of the head.
Q. Should one take fresh water for masah of the ears ?
A. No. The water for masah of the head will suffice. Masah inside the ears should be done by the first index fingers of both the hands and on the outside by the thumbs.
Mustahibbat-e-wudu , remaining rules
Q. Is it sunnat or mustahab to begin Wudu from the right ?
A. Some 'ulama call it sunnat and some mustahab.
Q. How to do masah on the back of the neck ?
A. Masah on the back of the neck should be done by the back of the fingers of both the hands. Masah on the front of the neck is a bid'at, and is not allowed.
Q. What are the other rules to be observed on wudu ?
A. There are many other rules to be observed in wudu. To pass the wet tip of the little finger into the ears. To do Wudu before the time for namaz. To rub while washing in wudu. To revolve the ring on the finger. Not to talk of worldly things while doing wudu. Not to throw water on the face with force. Not to waste water. To recite bismillah when washing each part. To recite darud sharif after wudu. And to recite kalima shahadat and the following du'a.
After Wudu to stand up and drink the water left in the pot. To say two rak'at of namaz (tahiyatul wudu) etc.
Nawaqid-i-wudu (breakers of ablution) , remaining rules
Q. How much of blood, pus, stc., should flow out of the body to break the Wudu ?
A. Wudu breaks if a little quantity of any nijs thing comes out of the body and flows over the part, the washing of which is fard in Wudu or ghusal.
Q. Will Wudu break if blood comes out inside the eye but does not flow out ?
A. Wudu will not break in this case, for it is not fard to wash the inner part of the eye.
Q. If blood comes out of a wound and one rubs it off by cloth or finger, and it comes out again, and again is rubbed and this is done many times, will the qudu break ?
A. Look at the quantity of blood. If the blood came out in such a quantity that it could have flown had it not been rubbed off, the Wudu breaks, otherwise not.
A. Yes, if blood, food, water or bile comes out mouthful in vomiting, the Wudu breaks. If only phlegm comes out, Wudu will not break.
Q. If one vomits again and again but a little quantity each time, what is the order for that ?
A. If vomiting happens due to a single nausea and then, if collected, it makes mouthful, Wudu will break. If there is small vomiting by two different nauseas, then don't add up the two vomits. In this case qudu will not break.
Q. If there is a boil on the body and some of its blood or pus soils the cloth, with such a cloth be tahir or not ?
A. If the quantity of blood or pus is such that it cannot flow but only soils the cloth, and leaves a mark, such a cloth will remain tahir. But it is better to wash the cloth.
Q. If one does not vomit mouthful, is that tahir ?
Q. If a leech sticks to the body and sucks the blood or a mosquito or flea bits, will the Wudu break ?
A. If the leech sucks the blood and after its removal the wound gives out no blood, the Wudu breaks because the leech has already sucked so much blood that it would have flown had that not been sucked into the stomach of the insect. Wudu will not break if a mosquito or flea bites, because they suck the blood in a very small quantity which cannot flow.