There is considerable variation in the names applied to manners of Articulation in the literature. In some cases different names are applied to the same manner of articulation, whilst in other cases labels divided up consonants in different ways.
In the present course we will mostly use the following labels for Place or articulation:-
1) Oral Stops
Oral stops have stop stricture and have a closed velum (ie. no nasal airflow). Oral stops are sometimes referred to as " plosives" or simply as "stops". Be warned that in the literature the term "stop" can refer specifically to oral stops, to oral stops and nasal stops collectively, or to stop stricture.
2) Nasal Stops
Nasal stops have stop stricture and have an open velum (ie. nasal airflow and nasal resonance). Nasal stops are very often referred to simply as "nasals".
Fricatives are consonants with fricative stricture. Many systems include central and lateral fricatives in the same manner category (but the IPA Pulmonic Consonantspirants" but this term is now considered obsolete.
The strong fricatives [s ʃ z ʒ] are often termed "sibilant" fricatives.
chart and the chart below separates them). In most of the course notes for this subject the central and lateral fricatives are included in a single manner category. Fricatives are sometimes referred to as "
Affricates are commonly described as a complex combination of stop plus fricative. Affricates can also be considered to represent one extreme end of a continuum of stop aspiration. See the topic " Complex Articulations: Affrication" for more information. In this course we will treat affricates as a manner of Articulation because this is the customary way of classifying /t͡ʃ/ and /d͡ʒ/ in English.
Approximants are consonants with approximant stricture, although some approximants also commonly display resonant stricture. It is very easy to become confused about the terminology used in the literature when referring to this class of consonants. Very often approximants are divided into the following two sub-classes:-
liquids (e.g. English, [ɹ] and [l])
semi-vowels (e.g. English, [w] and [j]) - also known as "glides"
When this system is used, liquids are effectively those approximants that are not classified as semi-vowels. Semi-vowels are those consonants that are most like vowels in their acoustic and articulatory characteristics and the semi-vowels often exhibit resonant stricture. Very often semi-vowels are only distinguishable from vowels using phonological criteria (see the topic "Distinction Between Consonants and Vowels" for details on the phonological distinction between vowels and consonants).
The division of approximants into liquids and semi-vowels is of particular relevance in this course to the topic "Distinctive Features", where the feature set for is different for liquids and semi-vowels.
Sometimes this further class of consonants is defined, but it is not strictly a manner of articulation. The rhotic sounds are the so-called r-like sounds and include the alveolar and retroflex approximants and the alveolar and uvular trills. In this course the term "rhotic" is used when dealing with the consonants of Australian Aboriginal languages (see the topic " The Phonetics and Phonology of Australian Aboriginal Languages"). In many Australian languages there are two consonants in the rhotic class, the alveolar trill [r] and the alveolar or post-alveolar approximant [ɹ]. Also, the term "rhotic" is also used when referring to the "rhotic" (eg. American) and "non-rhotic" (eg. Australian) dialects of English (see the topic "The vowel systems of four English dialects : Centring Diphthongs and Non-rhotic Dialects of English" for more information).
8) Obstruents versus Sonorants
Sometimes you will see consonants classified as " obstruents" or "sonorants". Obstruents include the oral stops, the affricates and the fricatives. Sonorants include the nasal stops, approximants and the vowels. For more information on these classes of consonants see the topic "Distinctive Features".
Defining Manner of Articulation in Terms of Laterality, Nasality and Stricture
Manner of Articulation can be described in terms of Laterality, Nasality and Stricture. The following diagram shows how the various manners of Articulation can be defined in terms of their laterality, nasality and stricture features.
تم تصغير هذه الصورة. إضغط هنا لرؤية الصورة كاملة. الحجم الأصلي للصورة هو 715 * 580. Relationship between Manner of Articulation and laterality, nasality and stricture.
Note that there can be no lateral (oral or nasal) stops; lateral requires the air to be directed around the sides of the tongue, stop requires the air to be totally obstructed in the mouth. The features are therefore incompatible.
Place of articulation is defined in terms of the the articulators involved in the speech gesture. It is common to refer to a speech gesture in terms of an active articulator and a passive articulator. Active Articulators
An active articulator is the articulator that does all or most of the moving during a speech gesture. The active articulator is usually the lower lip or some part of the tongue. These active articulators are attached to the jaw which is relatively free to move when compared to parts of the vocal tract connected directly to the greater mass of the skull. Passive Articulators
A passive articulator is the articulator that makes little or no movement during a speech gesture. The active articulator moves towards the relatively immobile passive articulator. Passive articulators are often directly connected to the skull. Passive articulators include the upper lip, the upper teeth, the various parts of the upper surface of the oral cavity, and the back wall of the pharynx. Naming Place of Articulation
The place of articulation of a consonant is generally named for the passive articulator. Sometimes the active articulator is also explicitly included in the name of a place of articulation by use of the prefixes "apico-" and "lamino-". Illustrations of Place of Articulation in English
The following links lead to diagrams that illustrate place of articulation in English. These diagrams are applicable to most dialects of English. The possible exception is the diagram for /r/ which may be articulated differently in some dialects of English.
The following table makes a distinction between articulations that are actually used contrastively in the world's languages, articulations that are not used but are possible, and articulations that are impossible. In some cases, articulations marked with "***" are actually physically impossible and in some cases "***" marks articulations that are too difficult to be considered serious possibilities for linguistic use.
In the above table:- *** means not a possible articulation --- means not found in any language (so far) From the above table, it can be seen that places of articulation are completely specified by both the active and the passive articulator. Some common articulatory distinctions are not completely captured by specification of the passive articulator alone. For example:-
Labiodental articulations cannot be fully specified by just the passive articulator (front upper teeth) as this would fail to distinguish such articulations from dentals.
Dentals can be either apico-dentals or lamino-dentals (and in some languages these can contrast). It is essential that the active articulator is specified to separate them.
Note that, with the exception of the lower lip and the vocal folds, the majority of active articulators are different parts of the tongue. Refer to this figure from lecture 1 for the location of these different parts of the tongue. Examples of Languages with Complex Place Contrasts
Malayam (India) Nasal contrasts at six places of articulation
/m/ /n̪/ /n/ /ɳ/ /ɲ/ /ŋ/
kʌmmi pʌn̪n̪i kʌnni kʌɳɳi kʌɲɲi kʌŋŋi Wangurri (Australia) Nasal contrasts at six places of articulation
/m/ /n̪/ /n/ /ɳ/ /ɲ/ /ŋ/
ɲamaʔ ban̪a ɡanaʔ maɳa ɡaɲawu naŋa Yanuwa (Australia) Oral stops contrast at six places of articulation
/b/ /d̪/ /d/ /ɖ/ /ɟ/ /ɡ/
wubuwiŋɡu wud̪urumaya wuduru wuɖuɭu ɡuɟuɭu wuɡuɡu Mandarin Chinese Fricatives contrast at five places of articulation
(all examples spoken with a high level tone) fa to issue sa three ʂa sand ça blind xa sound of laughter