In contrast to proper nouns which name unique entities e.g. Jane ,Cairo, name things or persons in a more general way e.g. tree ,city,cat,boy , woman,manger
In terms of translation English Common Nouns can be in general strightforwardly into their Arabic equivalents because the majority of English common nouns have Arabic counterparts e.g. teacher ,gust ,tent, mother ,grandfather etc
There are some cases however where there are lexical gaps in Arabic e.g. mug, clutch, gear, sophomore, foreman
It sould be noted that common nouns of this kind ususally call for lexical borrowing e.g. gear or paraphrase e.g. sophomore Translate the following sentences into Arabic ,pay special attention to the Common nouns in them
The childern play under the trees in the afternoon
يلعب الأطفال تحت الاشجار بعد الظهر .
the American liguist is expected to give some lectures at Jordanian universities
من المتوقع أن يلقى عالم اللغة الامريكى بعض المحاضرات في الجامعات الاردنية
My uncle will open a supermarket in this neighborthood
سيفتح اخى متجراً فى الجوار .
Alis brother has gone to the garge to change the brakes of his car
ذ هب أخ على للمرآب لتغيير الكوابح في سيارته .
My wife cut her little finger while schopping onions in the kitchen last night
قطعت زوجتى خنصرها عندما كانت تفرم البصل في المطبخ الليلة الماضية
In english are those that can be trated as either sigular ao plural without change of Number in them e.g. family
as in The family is or are going on a picinic today
The difference reflects a difference in attitude
The sigular strsses the non-personal collectvity of the group and the plural emphasizes the personal individuality with in the group
English collective nouns can be classified as specific e.g. army,club, government
OR generic e.g. the aristocracy , the public ,the intelligentsia
OR unique e.g. The Arab league
In terms of translation ,the specific and unique collective nouns in English are always
into Arabic Sigular nouns regardless of whether they are trated as sigular or plural in English as is illustrated below
The army has/have won the battle
لقد أنتصر الجيش في المعركة .
The vatican has /have called foor fighting terrorism
لقد دعا الفاتيكان إلى محاربة الارهاب .