stress is a feeling that we all certainly have after this period of exams let's know it and discover the real meaning of it :
Stress nowadays is the topic of many conversations: We talk about the stress of balancing work and home life, the stress of having to sit for hours in traffic jams each day, the stress of living in a hurried-up society, the stress of living in a noisy apartment and even the stress of dealing with a crying or whining child, but still many people have a hard time understanding what, exactly, stress is :
Stress is a feeling, but not really an emotion in its own right. Instead, it seems to be a common aspect of many different emotions, including frustration, anger, worry, fear, sadness, and even despair. But still we don't know precisely where stress comes from even though it's
concept implies that there is a cause for the stress that resides outside the person feeling it an outside action or an event) .
For many years, scientists have known that the body responds to threatening situations by releasing certain stress hormones--chiefly, adrenaline and cortisol--that trigger the so-called fight-or-flight response. As pulse and blood pressure rise, blood sugar also goes up, the breath quickens, bringing in more oxygen, and blood flow shifts toward the limbs and the brain and away from the stomach and intestines. Muscles tense, and attention narrows to a sharp focus.
stress is natural part of being human. It's your body responding to changes in the world around you.
It changes how your body works and puts your mind into different moods.
When you're getting a bit stressed about an exam - it just means that you really care about the result you will get.
That can be a good thing if it pushes you into working extra hard as you try to get a good score.
But it can be bad if you get too worried and the effects of the stress stop you doing well.
Stress has physical and emotional effects on us and can create positive or negative feelings. As a positive influence, stress can help compel us to action; it can result in a new awareness and an exciting new perspective. As a negative influence, it can result in feelings of distrust, rejection, anger, and depression, which in turn can lead to health problems such as headaches, upset stomach, rashes, insomnia, ulcers, high blood pressure, heart disease... etc.
In a word, with the death of a loved person, the birth of a child, a job promotion, or a new relationship, we experience stress as we readjust our lives. In so adjusting to different circumstances, stress will help or hinder us depending on how we react to it.
Stress is the force of breath with which a sound or a syllable is pronounced. In the stressed syllables, the vowel is the syllable is longer than that in the unstressed syllable and also has louder voice.
Stressed and unstressed words
In English, there are two types of words:
1- Content words are words that have the most information in a sentence. They are words that convey meaning. They are usually nouns, main verbs, adverbs, adjectives, question words, and demonstratives ( this, that )
2- Structural words are the grammatical words that hold the content words together. They are pronouns, prepositions, "to be" verbs, and auxiliary verbs. They are de-emphasized and unstressed because they do not carry meaning.
If the sentences or the group of words is looked upon as building the content words are the blocks and he structure words are the cement.
Levels of stress
1- primary or loudest stress usually marked /
2- secondary or second loudest stress usually marked
3- tertiary or third loudest stress usually marked
Juncture / Internal juncture
This refers to the pause between the combinations of two nouns characterized by a secondary- primary stress pattern.
How can the teacher help his student grasp the sentence stress?
To help the learners catch the sentence stress, the teacher is advised to do the following:
1- Expose students to the FL as spoken by its native speakers through recordings.
2- Let them repeat after you during model reading.
3- Speak at normal speed and encourage your students to do the same in order not to distort sentence intonation by excessively slow enunciation.
Intonation is the rising and falling of the voice as we speak. It is phonemic, as any change in the intonation pattern of the sentences adds meaning or implication to the basic meaning of the sentence.
The four pitch levels usually described for English are:
4- extra – high
Special problems of pronunciation for Arab learners:
1- orthography Vs. pronunciation
4- the plural form
Procedures in teaching pronunciation
1- Selection and presentation of the second feature to be taught.
The first step is to introduce the sound to focus the pupil's attention on the teaching point. The second step is to write on the board a line from a previously learned dialogue or a sentence from a text and underlined the feature e.g. /i/ " what did he eat ? "
2- Aural recognition and discrimination
It is important that pupils know precisely what they should listen to and that the teacher follow careful procedures in modeling the exercises.
once the pupils have demonstrated that they distinguish the new sound, they must learn to produce it, first in isolated words and phrases, later sentences, and finally in communicative utterances.
4- Contextualization the practice
It means use of he sound in a communicative situation. The drills, the pupils do, should progress quickly from the sound in isolated words to phrases and sentences. One of the easiest ways having the pupils practice sentences length utterances in a meaningful context is by asking them question. Discussing type questions are excellent for practicing real communication.
5- Sound- symbol correspondence
The students are given the various spellings of sounds in rules and generalization.
B) Super segmental
Teaching intonation and stress variation in speech.
Once the pupils are aware that there are differences between languages in intonation, they will need some kinds of graphic representations of the contour in English. A graphic symbol will serve to remind beginning of intonation pattern.
2- Aural discrimination
Pupils should have contrastive exercises in discrimination e.g. when they are learning yes-no questions after having learned (be) in declarative sentences.
T: he is in class. Statement
He is in class? Question
This technique focuses on intonation almost exclusively to convey the meanings and voice must rise and fall within the space of a very few syllables.
Stress and rhythm
1 and 2 steps: presentation and discrimination
As a beginning exercise, the pupils underline the stressed syllables in sentences which are read in whispered
Then they mark stress for sentences read in a normal voice. To be able to decipher how stress can change meaning, the pupils should have exercises in which they choose appropriate rejoinders.
This is an example of how to teach pupils produce compound nouns stress:
This is a tree for Christmas. A Christmas tree.
This is a bag for carrying in the hand. A hand bag
This is a pot for coffee. A coffee pot.
4-contextualiing the practice
to ensure transfer from the pronunciation class to everybody life, the pupils practice with situations they are likely to encounter outside the classroom. The best thing to do this is to use a series of role play activities and the pupils also give oral reports to the class.
Stress has physical and emotional effects on us and can create positive or negative feelings. As a positive influence, stress can help compel us to action; it can result in a new awareness and an exciting new perspective.
I think your reaction to everything must force you to do your best
and I beleive in the proverb says
Put your trust in Allah and keep your powder dry