بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
Mohammed bin Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Ibrahim Tnge who belongs to the tribe rode Amazigh knew Ibn Battuta (February 24, 1304 to 1377 AD) (703-779 AH) is a traveler, historian and jurist and judge the title of Prince of Rahalin Muslims.
From Tangier to the world in 30 years
Born in Tangier year 703 AH / 1304 in Morocco to a family known for their work in the judiciary and in his boyhood he studied law and decided in 1325, the son of 20 years, as pilgrims to come out of his hope to learn more about the practice of law in parts of the Arab countries. And came out from Tangier in 725 e Vtaf Maghreb, Egypt, Syria and the Hijaz, Iraq and Persia, Yemen and Bahrain, and Turkistan and beyond the river and some of India and China, and the country Gaop Tatars and Central Africa. Contact and much of the kings and princes Fmdham - and was organizing the hair - and used Bhbathm on his travels.
He returned to Morocco, the maximum, then quit doing that to the Sultan Abu Inan (of the kings of Beni Marin) and he stayed in his country. News and dictated his trip to Muhammad ibn al-Kalbi molecule in Fez 756 years old and he named his masterpiece principals in the oddity of the regions and the wonders of travel. Translated into Portuguese, French and English, and published, and translated into German, including the chapters were also published. And it improves the Turkish and Persian. The journey took 27 years (1325-1352 AD) and died in Marrakech in 779 AH / 1377. Tlqubh by Cambridge University in the Pamir and Otalsha Muslim travelers.
In his first trip over the Ibn Battuta in Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt, Palestine and Syria and then to Mecca. The following section, which record on this trip:
"It was my departure from Tangier, my birthplace accredited Hajj House of God and visit the tomb of the Prophet peace be upon him, on his own about Rafik lance with him, and rode I am in total, the motive of self strong determination, and passion into these institutes honest ... Vdzmt myself to abandon the loved ones of female and male, died of a national bird of paradox Okor, and my parents were to register for life after which she had assumed and Saba, and received as Liqya of ours. "
The Ibn Battuta three trips and have took in a total of about twenty-nine years old and was the longest first flight, which did not leave in which the aspect of Morocco and bright but has had the longest to establish him in the country of India where he took the Elimination of two years and then in China where he took the Elimination years and a half year in this period described what he saw and his findings which is reported by those who knew of the Sultans and the men and women described their clothes and their habits and morals and their hospitality and what happened during the residence of accidents and wars and the invasion and the lethality of sultans and princes, clergy and Ibn Battuta during his stay in this exuberant Batefth religious unnecessary mosques and did not let the corner and only had a guest and got it. It was not Ibn Battuta in while you take trips a world language is constitutive very beautiful but it was a traveler roams the country and zones, and in spite of what brought him in his travels of the wondrous creatures and customs, the stories of his travels was the most amusing stories and Odzlha sense in terms of recording habits of tribes and their traditions and their manner of dress and Moklhm and inclinations, as this long journey that has distinguished the benefits of historical and geographical said the row and from the country and its climate and soil, its mountains and seas and fine-tuning of the names of men and women, places and cities and angles and other
In those old days, traveling across these vast distances and venturing into a strange land risk. However, Ibn Battuta had the audacity, or at least determined, enough to embark on his journey alone on a donkey.
On the way, he joined a convoy of traders, perhaps motivated by safety, and the convoy was multiplied with the accession of the way more to it. With the arrival in Cairo had a population of the convoy had reached many thousands of men did not stop growing yet. It must be Ibn Battuta may feel excited for the progress of his trip. It was the first direct experiences in learning more about the most Ihuah, Dar al-Islam. Has met with Muslim scholars and gained more knowledge and religious legitimacy .
Algeria and Libya:
When they arrive to Algeria, the convoy spent some time outside the city walls to be joined by more pilgrims. When the city of Bejaia, Ibn Battuta's health deteriorated. However, it remained determined to continue to walk and not being left behind because of his health. Referring to this incident, says: "If God died for me, it would be my death on the road, Mimma my face halves of Mecca."
During the march of the convoy in the territory of Libya, Ibn Battuta found that it was appropriate for him to marry the daughter of a Tunisian trader with them in the convoy traveling to the Hajj. Ibn Battuta was married in the city of Tripoli, but that marriage did not last long because it opposes the new with diet. But it seems that this did not bother much Ibn Battuta soon Speeches another girl is the daughter of pilgrims from Fez. At this time the wedding was a full day of festivities.
Egypt and Syria:
Began approaching the convoy from Egypt. The stunned Cairo Ibn Battuta, as was as it is today, the city's most vocal and active Arab therefore decided to go where a few months. It is still before the Hajj in any case eight months. Cairo was as described by Ibn Battuta "the mother of cities, Our Lady of rural broad and productive land, no limit to the premises of the many, unparalleled for its beauty and splendor, the junction Alraih and Algadi market, the weak and strong ... stretching waves of the sea, including the creation of barely Tsahm ..."
Ibn Battuta stayed in Cairo for nearly a month. When he left her determined that exhibits the indirect route to Mecca as long as several months separated from the date of the Hajj. He went on to Damascus, which was then the second capital of the Mamluk state in Egypt. This was not part of the journey of Ibn Battuta eventful, perhaps for security which is relatively in the Mamluk era. But Damascus, Ibn Battuta enchanted atmosphere of tolerance and solidarity that prevails there. Says about them: "diversity and expenses of religious endowments in Damascus over each account. There are endowments for disabled people on the pilgrimage to Mecca, including paying expenses out of the Hajj on their behalf. There are endowments which provide wedding dresses for brides who fail their families to afford them, and endowments other freeing the necks of the prisoners. There are endowments for the passers-eighths of the proceeds paid to eat and clothe and travel expenses of their countries. There is also a supplication for the improvement and paving of roads, because all the lanes in Damascus have pavements on either side by walking pedestrians, and riders Viamadon in the middle of the driveway. "
Ibn Battuta finally went for Hajj. After spending the rituals of Hajj, he realized that himself more eager than ever to continue to travel. He did not have a particular country wants to destination, but his only goal is to visit as much as you can from the countries, but he envisaged that reflects the different paths. Thus, the movement in the Middle East as a whole, from Ethiopia south to the north Persia. "Then we traveled to Baghdad, Dar es Salaam, the capital of Islam. Where I saw the bridges like the one in Hilla, Iebarhama people day and night, both men and women. Routes to Baghdad and many long-lived well, mostly plated Balzft from a spring between Kufa and Basra overflows it without interruption. And gather on the sides of the spring like clay shoveled from there and brought him to Baghdad. in each institute in Baghdad the number of bathrooms its own, and in each font washing when one of its corners the water flows over it from Snburin one for hot water and the other for cold. and give each bather three towels, one for wrapping around his waist when he enters the and the other round his waist when he comes out and dries out the third of his body. "
Ibn Battuta then went north to explore the Caspian Sea and Black Sea and southern Russia. But later his travels was the most fun to the east in Asia. Was intended to India, where he earned the admiration there Mughal emperor to his knowledge and stories. And presentation of the emperor on Ibn Battuta Before him a position in his court. This allowed him the opportunity to roam all over India. Having gained a wealth of knowledge of India's north where the large number of his travels, the emperor sent an ambassador to India to China. And he was destined for the trip to be the last before returning to his homeland of Ibn Battuta. Despite the distance, decided that the intended Morocco. Arrived in north-west Africa in 1351. Before finally returning to Fez in Morocco in 1353 came out in a small trip to Spain, then on a journey south to the Sahara.
The country and book flights
In Fez, Morocco impressed with Annan's son, Sultan (1348 - 1358 approximately) description of the very country that cut him and ordered him to Ibn Battuta that Fas is required and put these stories in the book. Indeed, with the help aspiring writer is Ibn al-Kalbi (1321 - 1356 approximately), A Ibn Battuta his famous book "flights" in four separate parts. Perhaps Ibn al have added to the book a little element of fiction every now and then to the thrill and ease of communication with readers, but is generally believed he committed himself to exactly what is listed by Ibn Battuta. However, the strange is that the book "flights" did not gain popularity in the West only relatively recently, in the nineteenth century, when increased communication with Europe and provided the book there to be translated into English, French and other European languages. The researchers estimated the Europeans book flights as a highly important historical document.
After finishing the book the flights. Ibn Battuta did not come out, which was made in age, any lengthy trip to the desert or elsewhere. But began to work in the judiciary and continue to disseminate the acquired wisdom during his travels. Despite the lack of adequate information about the final years of age, but we know that he died at the age of 65 years. After long years of his death under the Ibn Battuta travels the longest in the world
Today happened to Ibn Battuta, who well-deserved appreciation in the world of exploration. Feltkhalid unique achievements in the travel, scientists launched the era name of Ibn Battuta on one of the craters on the moon.
1) the book of Ibn Battuta (flights)
2) Encyclopedia of Arab scientists
3) Some websites