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A contagious viral illness, severity of infection ranging from mild to severe illness, followed by paralysis mollusk of some parts of the body, especially the lower limbs in children and is widely spread in the spring and summer to late autumn.
There polio in many countries of the world, particularly in developing countries and at varying rates depending on the rate of immunization coverage are needed at the appropriate times and sanitation basis of the environment, cause most injuries (90%) among children under the age of five.
Microbe that causes the disease:
Polio virus - polio Virus, a gastrointestinal virus has three patterns, all of which may cause paralysis, but the pattern (a) is the most prevalent and events of the paralysis, as it causes in the majority of epidemics, there is no cross-immunity between the three types.
Sources of infection:
Human patient or carrier of the virus, and are the only reservoir of infection, and with each case, the phenomenon of the paralytic disease is expected that there are about a hundred non-paralytic case is not registered, this refers to the fact that a very large reservoir of infection.
Ways of transmission:
The virus enters through the mouth and nose and can also fly through the spray, especially during epidemics, and in other cases, the infection can be transmitted through contaminated food and dairy Palmkrob.
From 4 to 14 days.
Signs and symptoms:
When transmission to the child, there are three possibilities for the stages of the disease:
1. The first possibility: that the virus reaches the throat and larynx and then stop, do not show any symptoms of the patient, and this is likely the most frequent and this was due to several reasons including the natural immunity of the child, or HIV infection because of previous infection or vaccination.
2. The second possibility: that beyond the virus throat to the digestive system and then into the blood and stops at this point, because of natural immunity and the presence of antibodies formed as a result of the virus to enter the blood, and here appears on the patient, some symptoms such as: high temperature, vomiting, stiff neck muscles and back, and these symptoms disappear after a few days.
3. A third possibility: to infiltrate the virus to the nervous system, affecting motor neurons in the spinal cord where the damage occurs, and the resulting paralysis in the limbs, especially slug bottom of them.
Symptoms and signs third possibility: It is acute illness - the healing - the remaining polio.
In this case, shows a rise in temperature accompanied by headache and general pain with nausea and vomiting, a sick child may suffer from cramps in Almdilat, followed by a phase of the paralysis that often affects the lower limbs.
In the third week of the disease symptoms disappear and the public equal to heal the patient, followed by the emergence of residual paralysis in the muscles affected, which turns into a permanent disability.
No child is not immunized or never show the disease to infection resulted in paralysis, whether or not, and acquired immunity after natural infection or vaccination with full-dose remain for life.
Complications of polio:
A - Physical complications:
Result in distortions that accompany the disease to the lack of joint movement, which begins during the acute phase of the disease, the child feels severe pain in the muscles during movement of the parties, assisted by members of his family to sit in a comfortable situation, conditions that are often harmful to children due to contraction of the muscles that discourage hips and knees. Therefore, in the case of acute illness should be placed the child with some time each day in conditions which take into account energizes the hips and knees, with follow-up physiotherapy.
B - social implications:
Restrictions imposed by the family and society on the child and its activities may prevent the child with the exercise of activities that can be performed such as:
The need for education as the rest of healthy children, with a break the psychological barrier and giving him the opportunity to contact the rest of the members of the community and gain experience of life, and ways to facilitate the movement and normal life.
Polio disease from which there is no specific remedy specific so far, and the only way to prevent it vaccination and public health care.
1. Report the situation immediately upon discovery and isolation of Palmhvy, giving the necessary treatment.
2. Cleansing continuous discharge and belongings of the patient.
3. Limited to close contacts and giving them preventive treatment (Ga Ma globulin Gamma Globulin) by injection, giving them a booster dose of oral polio vaccination of children under five years, and follow-up to detect any further cases.
4. Vaccination, there has four types, including:
4. A. Basic immunization: a five doses as follows - the first at the age of two months from the date of birth - the second at the age of four months - the third at the age of six months - and doses Tencititan: the first at the age of a year and a half, and the second: at the age of four years until school entry.
4. B. Vaccinations containment: a preventive vaccination against infection in case of suspicion in the presence of a satisfactory situation, where it is to give all children under the age of five in the area of the occurrence of the condition two doses of vaccine one month interval between them, regardless of previous vaccination.
4. C. Alajttathi vaccination: It is in areas prone to the risk of outbreaks of disease, or where low vaccination coverage, thereby eliminating the polio virus from the environment, vaccination is the same way. 4. D. National vaccination campaigns: a national campaign on the country level, and aimed at the eradication of the polio virus from the environment in a specified time, and raise the level of immunity against the virus, and are vaccinated the same way for all children under the age of five years regardless of previous vaccination.
5. Times of epidemics: the focus should be on health education about the disease and its modes of transmission, and prevention with the delay of any routine operations, or intramuscular injection, where she was helping to transfer the cases under Alicliqnip (hidden) to the cases of paralytic satisfactory, taking into account hygiene and improving the health of the environment, and stay away from crowded places, and the need to raise the proportion of chlorine in drinking water during purification.
6. Society's role in the eradication of disease, particularly family and school were most important role of the basis and through:
6. A. Ensure that all children have completed primary and booster doses according to the schedule of vaccinations in force and to ensure to give them any other booster doses.
6. B. Cooperation with health authorities concerned in the implementation of special activities to eradicate polio once and for all. 6. C. In the case of symptoms or suspicion in the case of polio in the region, any child with a fever or vomiting unknown reason, must be submitted as soon as possible to the physician for examination and diagnosis of his condition.
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