هاى المعلومات الى انا عملتها الى يا سنادس تفضلى
[Mahmoud Darwish: The Expropriated Poet]
Born on 13 March 1941 in Al Birweh, a quaint village in the Galilee, Mahmoud Darwish went on to live a life that is a poignant example of how far talent and determination, combined with a precarious life, can carry an individual from a simple background into the international halls of fame. At the early age of seven, Darwish and his family were forced to flee to Lebanon to escape the ongoing massacres by the Israeli Army as it occupied Palestine and, in the process, destroyed the poet’s village (in addition to over 400 other Palestinian villages). Returning “illegally” to their country the following year, he and his family were subjected to military rule and emergency regulations of the State of Israel established over expropriated Palestinian land. They were given the status of “present-absent alien,” a status that will mark the poet from that point onwards, preventing him from ever finding his homeland, except in his language and his ever-loving audience.
It was as early as 1950 that the poet first realized how the poem can be “a threat to the sword” as he was harassed by the Israeli military governor for writing and reciting poetry that expressed his strong sense of Arab and Palestinian identity. These “harassments” were to continue until 1970 when he left to Moscow and then to Egypt, to finally settle for a while in Beirut until the Israeli invasion in 1982. After Beirut he became a “wondering exile” in Arab capitals, settling in Paris for a while, then Amman, and finally Ramallah, moving a step closer to the home which he still cannot reach. The circle is not yet complete….
“There is no age sufficient for me to pull my end to my beginning.” (Mural)
His life in the exodus somehow helped to ignite the poetic flame within him and exile became one of the sources of his literary creation. However, despite his geographic separation from his homeland, Darwish continued over the years to disrupt the status quo in Israel through the medium of poetry. In 1988, his widely circulated militant poem “Passers by in Passing Words,” a poem that he does not think highly of in literary terms but that nevertheless was met with great acclaim amongst the Arab public, was cause for a great uproar in Israeli circles, both the right and left wing alike. A book in French entitled “Palestine Mon Pays: L’affaire du Poeme,” published by Les Editions de Minuit in 1988, documents some of the articles that were written in defence of Darwish and his poem. In a similar manner, but this time in March 2000, Yossi Sarid, then the minister of education in Israel, suggested the inclusion of Darwish’s poetry in the Israeli high school curriculum. This suggestion resulted in a very close no-confidence vote for the Barak government.
The year 2000 witnessed the publication of Darwish’s twentieth book of poetry, Mural, a masterpiece epic poem which synthesizes his experience and poetry spanning 36 years as he contemplated impending “eternity” in a hospital bed after having undergone life-threatening surgery in 1998. In addition, he has five books of prose, and his work has been translated into more than 22 languages.
Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini
Mahmoud Darwish has quietly left us on Saturday 9 August 2008 after 67 years of a life jumping from one peak to another, rising higher every time, transcending his own successes. He was a beautiful human being, able to see what no one else can see: in life, politics, and even people, expressing his visions in a language that seems to be made only for him to write with. When he decided to take on this difficult surgery we thought that he can beat death, like he did several times before… but he, it seems, with his prophetic insight, could clearly see his “ghost coming from afar”.
He wanted to surprise death rather than wait for the “time bomb” that was his artery to explode unannounced… he went prepared, as he always is, leaving us behind to “nurture hope”
: محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات القدوة الحسيني, 24 August 1929 – 11 November 2004), popularly known as Yasser Arafat
(ياسر عرفات) or by his kunya Abu Ammar
(أبو عمار), was a Palestinian
leader and a Laureate of the Nobel Prize
. He was Chairman
of the Palestine Liberation Organization
of the Palestinian National Authority
(PNA), and leader of the Fatah
political party, which he founded in 1959. Arafat spent much of his life fighting against Israel
in the name of Palestinian self-determination
. Originally opposed to Israel's existence, he modified his position in 1988 when he accepted UN Security Council Resolution 242
Arafat and his movement operated from several Arab countries. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Fatah faced off with Jordan
in a brief civil war. Forced out of Jordan and into Lebanon
, Arafat and Fatah were major targets of Israel's 1978 and 1982 invasions of that country. He was "revered by many Arabs," and the majority of the Palestinian people, regardless of political ideology
or faction, viewed him as a freedom fighter
who symbolized their national aspirations. However, he was "reviled by many Israelis".
Later in his career, Arafat engaged in a series of negotiations with the government of Israel to end the decades-long conflict between it and the PLO. These included the Madrid Conference of 1991
, the 1993 Oslo Accords
and the 2000 Camp David Summit
. His political rivals, including Islamists
and several PLO leftists
, often denounced him for being corrupt
or too submissive in his concessions to the Israeli government. In 1994, Arafat received the Nobel Peace Prize
, together with Yitzhak Rabin
and Shimon Peres
, for the negotiations at Oslo. During this time, Hamas
and other militant organizations rose to power and shook the foundations of the authority that Fatah under Arafat had established in the Palestinian territories
In late 2004, after effectively being confined within his Ramallah compound
for over two years by the Israeli army, Arafat became ill, fell into a coma and died on 11 November 2004 at the age of 75. While the exact cause of his death remains unknown and no autopsy
was performed, his doctors spoke of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
Yasser Arafat was born in Cairo
parents. His father, Abdel Raouf al-Qudwa al-Husseini, was a Palestinian from Gaza; whose mother, Yasser's paternal grandmother, was Egyptian
. Arafat's father worked as a textile merchant in Cairo's religiously mixed Sakakini District
. Arafat was the second-youngest of seven children and was, along with his younger brother Fathi
, the only offspring born in Cairo. His mother, Zahwa Abul Saud, was from a Jerusalem
family. She died from a kidney ailment in 1933, when Arafat was four years of age.
On 11 November, the French military Honor Guard
held a funeral for Arafat at a military airport near Paris. President Jacques Chirac
stood alone beside Arafat's body for about ten minutes in a last show of respect for a leader he hailed as "a man of courage". The next day, Arafat was flown to Egypt's capital, Cairo, for another brief military funeral
there, before his burial in Ramallah, later that day. The funeral was attended by several heads of states, prime ministers and foreign ministers. Egypt's top Muslim cleric Sayed Tantawi
led mourning prayers preceding the funeral procession.