Will & going to are used to express the Future
يستخدم كلاهما للتعبير عن المستقبل
Will + infinitive ( without to)
Ex : They will travel to Paris next year .
Negative : They won't travel to Paris next year
Question : will they travel to Paris next year ?
• Usage :
1- To express a future decision or intention ( quick decision)
للتعبير عن نية بدون تخطيط مسبق
Ex : Which one do you want? The blue or the red ?
I'll take the red
2- To express a prediction للتعبير عن شيء أنت تتوقع حدوثه
Ex : we will use robots in all houses in 2020
3- To express an offer :لتقديم عرض
Ex : I'll carry your suitcase .
4- To express promise : للوعد
Ex : He promises he will phone everyday
5- To make a threat : للتهديد
EX: If you don’t behave well , I’ll tell your father
6- Request :للطلب
Will you open the door for me , please ?
b- Going to
is + going to
Ex : We are going to work together
Negative: We aren’t going to work together
Question : Are you going to work together?
• Usage :
1- to express a future decision or intention or plan made before
للتعبير عن نية أو قرار مخطط له مسبقا
EX : they are going to buy a new car .
2- to express a prediction you feel it must happen (There is evidence) للتعبير عن شيء أنت متأكد من حدوثه لوجود دليل
Ex : Look at the clouds! It's going to rain
A- Choose the Correct Answer : 1- My suitcase is so heavy! Give it to me. (I'll –I'm going to) carry it for you.
2- I bought some warm boots because I ( I'll go – I'm going) skiing.
3- "Tony's back from holiday." "Is he? I ( I'll – I'm going to) give him a ring."
4- We ('ll –'re going to) see "Hamlet" at the Royal Shakespeare tonight.The tickets were very expensive.
5- You can tell me your secret. I (won't – am not going to) tell anyone else.
6- I need to get these letters in the post as soon as possible"
"I ('ll go – 'm going) shopping now. I ('ll – 'm going to) post them for you.
7- Where (will you go – are you going )on holiday this year? "Turkey. What about you?
- " We don't know yet .Maybe we (will go – are going to) Spain.
8- " I haven’t got enough money to get home"
I ('ll – 'm going to) lend you some, if you like. How much do you want?
"Two pounds is enough. I ('ll – 'm going to) give it back tomorrow."
9- "Dad, can you sew on a button for me?"
"I can't sew. Ask Mum. She ('ll – is going to) to do it for you.
10- " Why are you working so hard these days?"
"Because ('ll – 'm going to) buy a car, so I'm saving as much as I can
Reflexive pronouns: الضمائر الانعكاسية
- Reflexive pronouns are often used when the action described by the verb is directed toward the thing referred to by the subject of the verb
. تستخدم الضمائر الانعكاسية لوصف فعل يعود على الفاعل من الفعل في نفس الجملة
This use of reflexive pronouns is illustrated in the following examples. The reflexive pronouns are underlined.
- I washed myself thoroughly before putting on clean clothes.
- Did you hurt yourself?
- Reflexive pronouns can also be used when it is desired to emphasize a personal pronoun. تستخدم الضمائر الانعكاسية ايضا للتاكيد
The reflexive pronouns in the following examples are underlined.
-. I myself saw what happened.
- Did he solve the problem himself?
- She did the work herself.
Subjective Case Reflexive Pronoun I
yourself للمفرد heـ
himself she herself it itself we ـ ourselves you yourselves للجمع they themselves
Unit Three : Language One
Past Simple: At one particular time in the past, these happened. It began and ended in the
· لحدث بدا وانتهى في الماضي past.
:يستخدم : The past simple is used
-For a finished action or state in the past
حدث او حالةانتهت في الماضي(completed actions in the past
- My brother got a new job in Madrid last week.
- Shakespeare died in 1616.
- عادات منتهية في الماضي - To talk about habits in the past:
- We always had roast beef on Sundays when I was a boy.
- We never went abroad for our holidays until the 1970s.
سلسلة من الاحداث تتابعت فيالماضي :- To talk about events that happened one after the other
He jumped out of bed, ran into the bathroom and slammed the door.
كلمات داله على الزمن Key Words:
Yesterday – last – ago- in the past -once upon a time
: شكل الفعل Form
قاعدي 1- Regular Verb:
She played tennis yesterday
2- Irregular Verb:شاذة) )غير قاعدي
She went to the sea last week
1- I watched television last night.
· Negative (I didn’t watch television last night)
· Question ( Did you watch television last night ?)
2- Present perfect مضارع تام
For an action in the past (usually recent) that affects the present=
-.حدث بدا في الماضي وتاثيره مستمر للحاضر
=For a state in the time from past to present حدث استمر من الماضي لغاية الحاضر - حدث غير محدد وقته منالماضي لحاضر
For an action (with no date) in the time from past to present.=
Key Words: كلمات داله على الزمن
Since – For – just – Yet – Ever – Never – Recently – Already – lately
I have lived in Riyadh for six years/ since 1995
· Negative (I haven't visited him for six years /since 1995.)
1- Ahmad has already finished his homework.
2- Have you ever been to London?
3- I have never been to London
They + have + pp
Present perfect / past simple
Both the present perfect and the past simple are used to talk about past time The difference is in whether is a connection to the present.
كلاهما يستخدم للتعبير عن أحداث ماضيةباختلافات بسيطة
1- The present perfect, unlike the past simple, expresses a connection to the present:المضارع التام له علاقة بالحاضر
1- I haven’t seen the Palestinian exhibit
( implies connection to present )
(The exhibit is still there and I can go)
2- I didn’t see the Palestinian exhibit
(implies lack of present connection)
(The exhibit is finished and I can’t go)
2-If a past action continues to the present, use the present perfect, not the past simpleاذا استمر الحدث لغاية الحاضر نستخدمالمضارع البسيط
1- I have taught for 10 years. ( I still teach)
2- I taught for 10 years. (I don’t teach anymore)
3-If a past action can’t occur again, use past simple, not present perfect:اذا الحدث لن يتكرر مرة اخرى فيالحاضر نستخدم الماضي البسيط
1- Shakespeare wrote many Novels.
(he is dead. He can’t write anymore novels)
2- Demy Moore has written many movies.
(She can write more movies in the future)
4-If an action happened at a specified time, use the past simple. The present perfect can only be used to talk about actions that happened at unspecified time:
اذا تحدد موعدالحدث في وقت محدد في الماضي نستخدم الماضي البسيط
1-I went to France in 1991
2-When Omar moved here, he got a new job.
Present perfect or Past simple
1- She (studies – has studied – have studied) Spanish and Greek when she was at universtiy.
2- When I (were- have been – was) a kid my dad used to cook wonderful meals.
3- (Did you see – Have you seen – Do you see) any good films recently?
4- Nada (had – has had – have had) a flight with her boyfriend last week.
5- The population of India (has increased – have increased – increased) since 1992.
6- The Titanic (has sunk – sank – have sunk) in 1912.
7- Sohail (have fallen – has fallen – fell) off his bike three times this month.
8- When Ali was a child, he (lived – has lived – have lived) in Nablus.
9- Who (wrote – has written – have written)that lovely poem?
10- Ouch! I (cut – have cut – has cut) my finger.
Put the verbs into the correct form (past perfect or past simple).
1. The storm ________( destroy ) the sandcastle that we____________ (build)
2. He________ (not / be) to Jerusalem before 1997.
3. When she____ ( go ) out to play, she__________ (do / already) her homework.
4. My brother______( eat ) all of the cake that our mum ______________(make).
5. The doctor ________ ( remove ) the plaster that he _________(put on) six weeks before.
6. The waiter _________ (bring ) a drink that I__________ (not / order)
7. I could not remember the poem we ______________(learn) the week before.
8. The children ________ (collect) the fruit that __________(fall) from the tree.
9. He ___________( phone) me before he ____ ( go ) to see her in London?
10. She___________ (not / write) a letter before that day.
Tag Questions: فيحال عدم وجود فعل مساعد نستخدم
Questions Tags are mini questions we add at the end of a sentence
We use it: :: تستخدم في نهاية الجملة لغرضأسئلة مذيلة
1- to check that the listeners agrees with you .التأكيد
2- to ask a real question سؤال حقيقي
Form : auxiliary or modal + subject pronoun
عبارة عن : فعل مساعد + ضمير فاعل
Negative sentence _____________ positive question tag
You aren’t a student , are you ?
Positive sentence ______________ negative question tag
You are a student , are'nt you ?
· Group A : there is an auxiliary or modal verb : في حال وجود فعل مساعد
1. You didn’t see him , did you ?
2. Rana can't swim, can she ?
3. He was there, wasn’t he ?
4. Nader hasn't come yet, has he ?
5. Ali and Maher will come to our house, won't they ?
6. They have got a new car, haven’t they ?
· Group B : There isn’t an auxiliary or modal verb : (don’t – doesn’t – didn’t )
1. They help you, don’t they?
2. Maha helps you, doesn’t she ?
3. Amira helped you, didn’t she ?
4. Tamer runs fast, doesn’t he ?
5. They work hard, don’t they ?
6. She sang songs, didn’t she ?
تاتي بعد احتمال غير مرغوب فيه
- Shall :
1- Intention : نية I shall visit Rafah tomorrow .
2- Offer to help :عرض خدمة أو مساعدة Shall I carry your bag for you ?
3- Suggestion اقتراح Shall we go out this evening
4- Promise : الوعد I shall get your money back
2- Will :
1- For future time : للتعبير عن المستقبل They say that it will rain tomorrow .
2- For Prediction للتوقع التنبؤ He left an hour ago, so he'll be at home by now \
3- For Quick decision للقرار السريع That bag looks heavy . " I will help you with it "
4- For promise :للوعد I will phone you as soon as I arrive
5- For Invitation للدعوة Will you have dinner with us ?
6- For Request للطلب Will you telephone me later,please?
1- For opinions / supposition :تنبه He should be at the meeting now
2- For advise /recommend للنصح
You should pay your debts
Students shouldn’t tell jokes in the class
3- for Undesirable possibility
for fear that , so that ,lest
He works hard lest he should fail
The door was locked so that no one should get out
4- Would :
1- For imagining situation :تخيل موقف
It would be nice to have a party here one weekend
2- Wishing تمني I wish the rain would stop
Would you like to come to dinner ?
4- Polite Request طلب Would you mind waiting a moment please?
5- Preference تفضيل
I'd rather have tea than coffee
6- Willingness or agreement الاستعداد والموافقة I should buy the car if he would sell it
7- Refusing رفض
He wouldn't give me back the book
1- For having the ability or skill للقدرة She can speak French
I can travel abroad alone
2- With verbs of senses مع أفعال الحس والإدراك I'm looking at him and I can see him
I can smell something burning
Can you remember where they live?
3- Possibility إمكانية A poor man can become rich.
It can rain in summer
4- Permission تقديم إذن You can drive a car if you have a license .
5- Asking Permission طلب إذن Can I use your pen ,please?
6-Requesting : طلب Can you bring me my bag, please?
1- Past tense of can : الماضي من
I can't run now , but I could run when I was young
2- Request طلب Could you show me the way to the post office ,please?
3- Possibility إمكانية ’t strike the match near the baby. You could give him a burn
1- Probability احتمالية He may come now
If you are careful, you may win
2- Wishing تمني
May we all meet again soon
1- Doubt or very unlikely possibility احتمال ضئيل Let's go to Ahmed ; he might be in
1- Obligation ,necessity ,duty إلزام واجب وضرورة شديدة - You must go now
- You mustn’t park here . ( probation تحريم
10- Ought to
1- Necessity ضرورة He ought to work harder than he does
I asked him how much I ought to pay
2- Duty واجب You ought to obey your parents
Read this sentence and try to add one of the words between brackets.
I study hard, (must, might,should,could,may.have to, can ect.) Then it becomes. I…………………study hard. These are called modal verbs.
In a way of introducing the verb's valuablity and importance
هذه الكلمات تقدم لنا الفعل بدرجه من الأهمية أوألاحتماليه التي يطلبها المعنى في ألجمله
1-can/can't/could couldn't expressing
A- rules B- abilities C- un abilities.
You can't carry the ball in volleyball. rule
It's light, you can carry it. ability
2-shall/shan't/should/shouldn't expressing good or bad.
You should help the poor. Good
You shouldn't eat much. bad
3-must/mstn't/need/needn'texpressing degree of necessity.
You must study hard. necessary She doesn't need to carry all her books. not necessary
He may succeed this year.
5-might= less than 50%
He might succeed, but I'm not sure.
Who- whom –whose- which- when- where
Who : whom تعتبر جدا رسمية في الاستخدام ويمكن استبدالها ب who
Is used to refer to people in the subject case : تستخدم في حالة الفاعل ويأتي بعدها فعل
1- The man who/that lives next door is a doctor
2- This the man who/that has a new red car
Is used to refer to things in the subject and object case :تستخدم في حالة الفاعل أو المفعول به
1- She ate the apples which were in the fridge
2- Maha wore the dress which she had bought yesterday
- It is used to refer to people in the object case . تستخدم لعاقل في حال المفعول به
1- I visited the men whom I met last week in the party
- Whom is generally used only in very formal English
- whose is used as an adjective indicating possession .تستخدم للدلالة على الملكية
- Whose usually modifies people but it may also used to modify things
ملكية سواء الأشخاص وغير العاقل
1- I know the man . His bicycle was stolen
I know the man whose bicycle was stolen
2- Mr. Fehmi has a painting . Its value is great .
Mr. Fehmi has a painting whose value is great .
- it is used to refer to place دلالة على المكان
1- The building is very old . He lives there ( in that building)
The building where he lives is very old .
2- My grandfather has a nice garden where he grows flowers
When :للدلالة على الزمان
- It is used to refer to time .
I'll never forget the day . I met you then ( on that day)
1- I'll never forget the day when I met you
2- Ramadan is a special time when we fast
Indefinite Articles : A - An
Indefinite articles are used before indefinite, countable and singular nouns
المعدود.يستخدم قبل الاسم المفرد
Ex: a book - a pen - a room .
a = An : before a vowel (a-e-i-o-u) قبل الاسم الذي يبدأ بحرف علة
An apple - an engineer - an egg .
1. Naming a profession:
She is an artist.
He is a student.
2. Making a general statement A bank account can provide a good means of saving money.
A good pair of scissors should be used for cutting cloth.
3. Referring to something not mentioned before
Where can I find a telephone?
4. A or An with the meaning of Per
once a week
two dollars a dozen
four times a year
Use "a" or "an" with a singular count noun when you mean "one of many,"
"any," "in general."
Bob is a student (one of many students).
I like a good movie (one of many movies).
Use "a" or "an" the first time you use a noun in a paragraph
I saw a movie last night.
A man ran into the street.
Use "a" or "an" if the title is not a specific title.
Use a/an for non-specific geographical places:
Use a/an if you write about a non-specific building or monument.
Use a/an for non-specific colleges or schools.
Use a/an for non-specific buildings
Asking for Permission and Responding الطلب والرد على الطلب
Asking for Permission: طلب اذن
Can I + infinitive ………..,please?
Giving Permission: تقديم اذن
• Yes, of course طبعا
• Sure بالتأكيد
• Certainly بالتأكيد
• Help yourself تفضل
• Here you are تفضل
• Go ahead تفضل
Refusing Permission: رفض الطلب
• Sorry , I need it myself
• I'm deeply sorry. أنا آسف جدا
• Well. I'm using it at the moment. أسف، ولكني استخدمه الآن
• Write what would you say in each of the following situations:
1. You would like to borrow your friend's book.
2. You want your younger brother to switch on the light
3. You want the teacher to let you leave early.
4. Your friend wants to borrow your camera but you need it.
5. Your neighbour wants to use your computer and you agree.
1- You want to use your friend's telephone
2- Your friend wants to borrow your pen and you agree
3- You would like your brother to post a letter for you.
4- Your friend wants to borrow your bike but you need it
5- You ask for your father's permission to go to the cinema.
1- Go ahead
2- Sorry, I need it myself.
3- May I go to the cinema?
4-Could you post the letter for me please.
5- Could I use your telephone?