If you want to be a good English teacher , you should think of three stages : *1-Pre-teaching ( your preparation to the lesson and students’ interaction and reaction ) Most of our teachers neglect the first stage (pre-teaching) which I consider the most important stage because it helps you to be a self-confident teacher. You shouldn’t only prepare your lessons but also prepare yourself well to students’ expected and unexpected reactions and interaction . This makes students trust you and creates motivation from students for learning and prevents some problems dealing with discipline inside the classroom. *2-While-teaching (everything will happen inside the classroom ) *3-Post-teaching(self-evaluation) *****We will deal with all these stages in detail later. Actions that teachers take in first lessons: 1-Introduce yourself.
2-Students introduce themselves or each other or learn something about each other.
3-Establish a particular classroom atmosphere :cooperative and respectful.
4-Learn about learners’ expectations. 5-Establish a code of classroom conduct( acceptable behaviours , etc ).You and your students can set classroom rules because if the rules come from the students , they will be more willing to follow them then write the rules on a large sheet of paper and hung it in the classroom. This point is very important because it deals with classroom management which I will put it forward later . Note: What are your suggestions to maintain discipline inside classroom and what will you do if a student breaks the rules? 6-Present the course oint out important information about course content ,ways of working , assessment. 7-Pre-test students to assess their proficiency level
If you want to be a good teacher , you should know how to manage your classroom first and this will help you much in your performance inside classroom and I hope this topic benefit you because you will find many things in it easy for you
Teacher success, in relation to both student learning and teacher efficacyفعالية, can often be traced to the ability of the teacher to manage the cl classroom . Research shows that effective classroom organization and management during the first few weeks of school are important in determining expectations, behavior patterns, and procedures that will persist throughout the school year. Much of the instruction and social interaction that occurs during the months after September can be traced directly or indirectly to the way teachers initially establish instructional and social systems during the first week Classroom management, student discipline, and issues related to organization are among the most commonly reported problems by teachers in their first years . Harry Wong (1998) suggests that classroom organization and management includes all of the things that a teacher must do towards two ends
1. To foster and encourage student involvement and cooperation in all classroom activities; and
2. To establish a productive working environment
Successful teachers know how to make an environment that is stimulating and attractive. Room arrangements and displays must be attractive, but also functional. Quality instruction requires that teacher use materials other than assigned textbooks and workbooks. If teachers begin collecting and organizing these items before school begins, planning richer and varied lessons becomes routine, makes the teacher more productive, and reduces work-related stress
Edmund Emmer and Carolyn Evertson (1981) state that effective classroom management consists of teacher behaviors that produce high levels of student involvement in classroom activities, minimal amounts of student behavior that interfere with the teacher’s or other students’ work, and efficient use of instructional time. Teachers that are effective classroom managers have
· Planned rules and procedures carefully
· Systematically taught these to students
· Organized instruction to maximize student task engagement and success
· Communicated directions and expectations to students
A well-managed classroom is a task-oriented and predictable environment. Harry Wong, 1998.
In a task-oriented environment, students understand what is expected and how to succeed. Work is focused on learning and students are able to achieve the objectives When students understand the rules and procedures, they can follow through with the expectations and know what is supposed to happen in the classroom. They also know what consequences will occur when the expectations are not met
What Do We Need to Know About Students
To manage a classroom effectively, it is important for teachers to understand the developmental progress of students. Specifically, understanding child and adolescent growth and development, as well as issues of students’ cognitive and cultural difference, is essential for laying the foundation of an effective and positive learning environment An effective teacher understands child growth and development · Children develop through predictable stages · Growth is deeply influenced by culture, personality, and environment · Social and physical development and intelligence do not proceed for all children at the same rate
An effective teacher understands issues that affect adolescent growth and behaviour
· Children need to feel valued. · Learners need to have fun and freedom. · Learning needs to be practical and applicable. · Mistakes arise from inexperience. · Peer pressure is intense for teens. · Emotional energy in teens runs high. An effective teacher recognizes cognitive and cultural diversity · Students learn through different modalities, styles, and a variety of multiple intelligences · Learning is affected by students’ cultural perceptions and background experiences
1-Creating a Positive Climate
When students feel safe, secure, and are engaged, learning increases. Learning decreases when students feel threatened or unchallenged (Marzano, et al, 1992). Promote and Maintain High Expectations · Announce and post statements that communicate high expectations · Reinforce high expectations through consistency · Celebrate success · Dress for success and respect Know Your Students · Activate prior knowledge in activities, · Ensure learning opportunities promote diversity and offer multicultural perspectives on issues and experiences Engage All Students in the Learning Process · Develop a system to ensure all students are called on and have an opportunity to participate For "Floaters" · Visit and develop a plan with the teachers whose space you will be sharing
2-Organizing Your Classroom
In organizing your classroom, consider ways in which you can make students feel welcome, encourage involvement, and allows for learning experiences in a multitude of arrangements
Ensure Furniture Arrangement Promotes Learning Opportunities · Consider traffic flow for teacher proximity and student movement · Arrange student seating to allow for maximum visibility and accessibility to the learning activities and to limit distractibility. عدم الانتباه · Create room arrangements that allow for flexibility and activities that may require movement Have a Seating Chart · Have a seating chart ready before students arrive · Have a plan for helping them find their seats Maintain Plans for Materials and AssignmentManagement · Have bins or folders for student assignments · Place materials for student activities in a regular location for student access · Always have materials and equipment checked and ready before students arrive Create Bulletin Boards that Foster Learning · Be sure bulletin boards are informative, relevant, attractive, and related to class activities For "Floaters" · Use a moveable cart to keep your materials, supplies, and AV equipment ready and transportable · Obtain a file cabinet to keep in each room or a centralized location · Make use of existing technology, e.g., use a laptop and LCD projector for "traveling presentations." · Develop an agreement with the teachers with whom you share a classroom space to have a bulletin board for your own use
It is critical for an effective teacher to have rules and procedures in place for students and that students fully understand the working expectations. Class rules should be aligned with both the school’s plan and the school system’s code of student conduct Create and Communicate (Verbally and in Writing) Fair Expectations · Create a limited number of rules (three to five) that are clear, specific, and stated positively · Involve students in the process of understanding, developing, and implementing rules and procedures · Reinforce rules by practicing them with students Develop Routines and Procedures for Tasks that Occur Regularly · Identify specific activities and develop a step-by-step procedure for completing the activity (e.g., sharpening pencils, turning in assignments, arrival and dismissal, quieting the class, etc.) · Practice these procedures with students Set Up a System of Specific Consequences and Rewards · Be sure consequences are reasonable and logical to the situation · Be consistent and fair in applying consequences. For "Floaters" · Have students over learn your routines and procedures within the limitations of the physical space you are in · Post your schedule
4-Assigning and Managing Work
Assignments should be based on instructional objectives and provide opportunities for students to extend, refine, or practise the skills or content of the lesson. The teacher must have a system for providing meaningful and relevant assignments and managing their work Promote Student Responsibility and Accountability to Learning · Make sure students fully understand what they are supposed to do and how they are to do it · Communicate clear procedures for assignment distribution and collection · Monitor student completion of assignments and mastery of skills/content · Provide timely feedback on assignments · Develop and administer a fair and prompt policy for make-up work Develop and Implement a Fair and Consistent Grading Process · Ensure your system for grading is consistent with the school and school system’s policy · Record both formative and summative progress of student growth · Record both grades and daily attendance · Involve students in monitoring their own progress For "Floaters" · Create a web page for communicating with parents and students and for posting assignments · Use brightly-colored file boxes (and keep them in a consistent location) for students to locate their work and your assignments · Work out a procedure with the office and with students whereby students can safely turn in work to you when you are not in a regular location
5-Preparing for Instructions
When students are actively engaged in learning, they are focused on the task and are involved with the material, so fewer behavior problems exist. Therefore, an effective teacher has prepared meaningful lessons that involve students for every minute of class time Plan for Long-range Units and Daily Instructions · In planning, consider the following: (a) purposes for instruction; (b) prerequisite learning needed to accomplish the goals for instruction; and (c) procedures to be followed by students to achieve the objectives for instruction · Utilize appropriate resources for instructional planning such as Scope and Sequence documents, curriculum guides, and textbooks and instruction resources (including print and non-print materials) Develop Plans that Include Best Practices for Instructional Delivery · Diagnose the strengths and weaknesses of students and use these to guide instruction · Develop lesson and unit plans from curriculum and perceived needs of students · Provide continuity between lessons and make this clear to students · Include materials and activities for students according to their needs, interests, and abilities at the appropriate level of difficulty · Base assignments on the objectives of instruction and provide opportunities for students to practice the instruction in guided and independent activities and/or projects · Assess students based on their accomplishment of the stated objective(s) For "Floaters" · Find a place to call home, i.e., office space or a location to regularly meet with parents · Use technology (e.g., overhead projector) to have materials, warm-ups, and lessons ready to present before students arrive · Sign up to use equipment, labs, and other school resources well in advance
To manage behavior in the classroom, effective teachers use anticipatory responses to reduce misbehaviors and are consistent in their delivery of consequences Be proactive · Identify the causes of misbehavior and develop routines and experiences that reduce these occurrences · Utilize proximity to monitor student involvement and behavior · Model appropriate behaviors · Communicate and reinforce class rules and procedures · Implement your school’s peer mediation and conflict resolution plan to maintain peaceable behaviors · Use verbal and non-verbal signs to redirect inappropriate behaviors Be Consistent · Follow through with all infractions by following the school’s behavior management plan and the student code of conduct · Communicate both positive and negative behaviors with parents and students · Use appropriate consequences · Immediately correct behaviors · Help students to recognize inappropriate behaviors and related consequences · Use neutral language when correcting behaviors
As the year progresses, stay focused on successes and maintain the momentum of continuous improvement Expect the Unexpected · Plan for interruptions in case they occur. Build a Culture of Excellence · Promote a continuous desire to learn. · Do not settle for less than students’ best efforts. Reflect and Seek Out Support · Learn from your experiences and inevitable mistakes. · Ask mentors, colleagues, and administrators for assistance. · Attend professional development. Take Care of Yourself · Build skills for time and task management. · Find ways to relax, enjoy the job, and manage stress. · Celebrate success.
The idea of trying to manage a classroom full of noisy teenagers who may or may not be interested in learning English requires organizing and planning your work .Two of the most serious challenges are how to maintain discipline and how to correct large amounts of written work
·1- Maintaining discipline
Most discipline problems are the result of boredom. If students are interested in the class , many discipline problems disappear . Students who are paying attention , who are involved in activities that appeal to their interests and needs , often help control their classmates. Some techniques that can help maintain discipline are described below.
·Set classroom rules. At the beginning of the year , ask students to work in small groups to write down rules they think are reasonable regarding the classroom behaviours and the consequences for breaking the rules. Collect and write up a summary of the ideas on a large sheet of paper . Ask students to vote to accept the rules and make a final copy to be hung in the classroom . If the rules come from students , they will be willing to follow them . ·Plan a variety of activities that appeal to students with different learning styles and interests. This will keep the attention of the majority of students. often the students themselves are effective in maintaining discipline . If many students want to hear what the teacher or their classmates are saying , they will ask their neighbours to be quiet and pay attention , too. · Establish routines . Starting the class with the class agenda on the board can help students prepare for the day’s class . Set up signals that the students understand – for quiet , for silence and so on ·Give the more advanced students responsibility for helping others. ·Teach students to show their respect for othersby listening to what they have to say ingroup work or when they are reporting to the whole class 2-Correcting large amounts of written work Large classes mean lots of written work to correct, which is too much for a teacher who has toplan lessons and teach classes. Tow techniques can help decrease the workload of correcting written work
·Students work in groups to produce one piece of writing for each group or to completegrammar exercises together. This encourages communication and decrease the number of sheets of paper the teacher must correct. Tell students that students within a group will receive the same grade so that they will all take an interest in producing something good
There are many problems with large classes including 1-managing large classes well requires good planning , but teachers don’t have time for this kind of planning needed.
2-Teachers find it difficult to establish rapport with students . 3-Teachers find it difficult to monitor students work , so learners may get little individual attention or feedback to help them improve . 4-Proficiency and ability level vary a good deal within the class , weaker students often get left behind . 5-Providing control and providing effective discipline may be difficult. 6-Students may get little opportunity for actual language production and practice . ========= ***So teachers need to know what pedagogical techniques and classroom management practices can be used to maximize the amount of students learning in large classes . The development of effective learning in classes that size often depends more on classroom management skills and a short list of pedagogical techniques than on any one particular approach to teaching . * Teacher behaviour that is needed to deal with the problems listed above: - Pedagogical planning
Advance and overall planning of the curriculum and planed application of deliberate teacher behaviour that can facilitate learning .
-Classroom learning systems Clear routines , expectations and physical arrangements the teacher can set up to time and enable learners to know what is expected of them. -Discipline management
A fair system of discipline helps students to know what behaviour is expected and what the consequences of negative behaviour will be . a teacher using discipline management is firm but shows respect for the individual. Discipline management is most effective when behavioral expectations are part of a school – wide system Conclusion: classroom management is very important in the process of learning that a teacher needs a good environment and quiet atmosphere to help him perform well and achieve what is useful for learning inside and outside classroom and this needs co-operation from all people (school staff , parents , ministry of education