Present Perfect (I have eaten)
1. We make the present prefect
and a past participle (e.g. walked, taken
I/you/we/they have/’ve started Ø
he/she/it has/’s started
We make negatives, questions, and short answers with have or has: ·
You haven’t started ·
Diana hasn’t started ·
Have you started? ~ Yes, I have. ·
Has Diana started? ~ No, she hasn’t.
2. With regular verbs, we add –ed to form the past participle (e.g. walked, started
). But there are many verbs with irregular past participles (taken, chosen, sold, slept
3. We use the present prefect to talk about events in past time, but not about when they happened: ·
Somebody has taken
my bag. (Not somebody has taken it yesterday.) ·
I have read
her latest novel.
We use the present perfect in this way when the past even is relevant now: ·
Somebody has taken
my bag. I can’t find it. ·
to the dentist. My tooth doesn’t hurt now.
We use the present perfect to talk about situations or actions during a period that started in the past, and has continued up to the present (e.g. today, this month, this year, for three weeks, since last year
here for six years
(=from six years ago until now) ·
at CGE since 1992
(=from 1992 years ago until now) ·
Jane has phoned
me three times this week
We haven’t d
much money this year
. · Have
We can use the present perfect with ever
, and yet
, like this: · Have
you ever been
inside a submarine? ·
I’ve never eaten
horse meat. ·
Chris has already sent
her a present. ·
They haven’t finished
their game yet
Note that we put ever
, and already
before the past participle, and yet
at the end of the sentence. Simple Past (I ate) or Present Perfect (I have eaten)
1. We can use the past simple, but not the present prefect, to ask questions with what time
? etc, and to make statements about when things happened (e.g. at 5 o’clock, in 1977
A: What time did the plane land?
(Not what time has the plan landed?) B: It landed at 5 o’clock.
(Not it has landed at 5 o’clock.) ·
A: When did Elvis Presley die?
(Not when has he died?)
B: He died in 1977.
(Not he has died in 1977.)
2. We also use the past simple if other expressions set the event in past time: · When I was in the army, I had a terrible time.
(Not I’ve had…) · I was almost back home when the storm started.
3. We describe a past action or event with the present perfect to show that t is relevant now. The time if the action is not important. ·
Ann has broken her arm (=it is now broken) ·
Bill has made the salad. (=the salad is now made)
The past simple does not imply anything about the situation now: ·
her arm last year. ·
her arm yesterday.
From this information we expect, of course, that James’s arm is all right now, but that Kate’s arm is still broken.
4. We introduce an event with the present perfect, but we continue to talk about it with the past simple:
A: Ann’s broken her arm.
B: how did she break it?
A: she fell onto some rocks.
5. For a very recent even we can use the present perfect with just
or the past simple with ago
John has just gone
out a few minutes ago
Note that we just use just
before the past participle (e.g. gone