Varied methods of teaching modern according to the changed perception of the nature of the learning process Having relied on brutal and recitations expanded to include levels of cognitive knowledge, which requires a positive learner in education aimed at highlighting the capabilities of the students potential and upgrade is no longer the traditional methods of teaching appropriate to contemporary life, and therefore appeared theories of educational many help to gain many skills, mental, social, motor and task the teacher talk and in accordance with the methods of the current opportunity for learners to acquire knowledge for themselves, and actively participate in all activities of education, and the popularity of that desire and activity to get used to independence of thought, work and self-reliance.
The meaning of teaching methods:
Learn teaching methods Banha series of events organized administered by the teacher within the Division of study to achieve its objectives, ie, how organized by the teacher educational attitudes and use of the means and the various activities according to the steps the educational situations, and the popularity and use of the means and the various activities according to the steps an organization to give learners the knowledge, skills and attitudes desired.
Can be summarized the most important foundations and features of the modern methods of teaching
Are as follows:
1 - the independence of the activity of the learner and give him a chance to think and act and get the information himself.
2 - Diversification of activities to address the individual differences among learners in the course of teaching.
3 - Development of the ability of learners to scientific thinking and critical thinking.
4 - Training of the senses Mahlazp as a basis for the development of all the capacities of the mind from country to transmit the explanation and conclusion sentences when dealing with different issues.
5 - encourage learners to adopt a spirit of teamwork and cooperative.
There are many factors which affect the teacher in choosing the ways
1 - the objectives of teaching social studies.
2 - the capacity of learners and their preparations and their previous experience and the degree of mental maturity, g
3 - the means and educational tools.
4 - the possibilities of the local environment.
5 - Foreign readings.
6 - Supervising the administrative education in the school.
7 - technical guidance and supervision of education.
Teaching methods based on the effort the teacher and the learner:
And classification of these methods based on the criterion of effort the teacher and the learner to the following:
1 - teaching methods based on the effort the teacher and include:
A - the lecture method.
B - the way Alilqaiip.
C - the way Herbartih.
D - the way of education with the meaning of David Aozubl.
2 - way of teaching based on the effort the teacher and the learner include:
A - collaborative learning.
B - Teaching widget.
C - scientific presentations.
D - the project.
3 - teaching methods based on the learner and the effort include:
A - bags of education.
B - education programmer.
C - educational complexes.
D - computer-based learning.
E - Learning Alianagaii.
We will look for some modern teaching methods which include:
First: Cooperative Learning:
Began to interest educators in collaborative learning in the sixties of the twentieth century thanks to the efforts of some scholars such as Dewey and Kalpatrick in order to activate the role of the learner in the educational process through Anadwaih under a small group or large group with a view to obtaining scientific information and knowledge as well as Musharkth effective and positive in the learning process and success of that process.
The concept of collaborative learning:
Means cooperative learning division students chapter into small groups ranging from the number of the joys of one set between 2 - 6 members and give each group the task of education and one (obligatory education) and each member serves in the group according to the role assigned to it, and made use of the results of the work groups be circulated to all students.
The basic principles of cooperative learning:
Can be summarized as follows:
1 - Learning:
Includes two important elements:
A - you know the individual himself.
B - make sure that all individuals have learned.
This means that the working group cooperative interdependent and cohesive Everyone has a responsibility to teach himself, also located by the responsibility to ensure learning of others in his group and urged them to learn or teach them in order to reach all members of the group to the level of Aliguetqan and because the success of joint and therefore mark each individual would be an element of the signs of the group affect the final outcome of the group.
2 - Enhancement:
It means encouraging students to teach each other, especially when one of them completed the task entrusted to him successfully mastered, or when one of them learn the material or activity by the palm or when a student demonstrates to others the concepts of the new article.
And reinforcement or encouragement, help in the back of a sound social patterns such as assistance and friendship between the members of the group.
3 - Evaluating the individuals:
Means that everyone is asking for contributions, and to know the level of each individual, whether it is needed to assist or encourage, because the main objective of the collaborative work is to make everyone stronger if one is working individually and through collaborative work. So do not be left to individuals without evaluation and to identify the extent of learning that has reached as well as to identify the production of the student and to evaluation and assistance to him that he needed them.
4 - communication skills:
The sense that each individual be trained on how to communicate with others and work with them and encourage members of the group which are essential for the completion of the collaborative work, which requires the building of mutual trust between the members of the group, and their cooperation and patience and patience in solving the problems faced by the group.
Means evaluating the work of the group as a whole and the work of each individual independently, and to identify the actions of individuals, which help progress towards the goal and any business was an impediment to progress towards the objective, and therefore the group be able to make a decision about any action that keep that group and any action abandon him because he does not Connects to the primary goal.
The formation of groups for cooperative action:
Different composition of the group according to criteria established by Malam also supports the formation of the objectives, content and curriculum, the teacher may be a heterogeneous group of collaborative work or group collaborative work is not homogeneous.
Working group is heterogeneous working group, which is different from the individuals in the cognitive ability and skill, preferences and desires ... Etc..
The working group is heterogeneous group, which includes members of almost identical level of knowledge and skills, preferences and desires ... Etc..
The following are some rules in the formation of groups:
1 - static form groups in order to achieve communication and social interaction between individuals and prefer to be given a period of up to a month so that people can get to know each other and are based on affection and intimacy between them.
2 - Formation of homogeneous groups when dealing with different subjects (different educational missions) and when the subjects varying in difficulty, then distributes these topics at various levels of heterogeneous groups. And the formation of heterogeneous groups by random selection to achieve the main objectives of the collaborative work is helping individuals to each other.
3 - taking into account the preferences and desires Allamit to join the group by virtue of the relations of friendship or intimacy between members of the group.
4 - The estimated number of Aphra c group between 2-6 and so that individuals can achieve the objectives on the one hand, so that the teacher evaluating the work of groups in the allotted time.
Steps to implement cooperative learning:
Cooperative learning can be implemented according to the steps and the following actions:
1 - select the unit to be implemented by the teacher Bslob collaborative work.
2 - the division of Unity educational units to partially distributed groups for cooperative action.
3 - Dividing students into groups of collaborative work and the role of each individual in the group, such as the group's leader, reader, and the summary and the denominated, the Registrar and also notes, every member of the group has important work can not be dispensed by the rest of the group.
4 - The reader to read the educational mission, here on each member to write the information, concepts and facts presented by the reader and the group is located on the responsibility to ensure Hakiq targets at all group members.
5 - is being tested individually for each member of the group, and then calculates the sign of the group from the account of the arithmetic average of the marks where the best members of a group is the group that received the highest average arithmetic, or the largest if the total number of groups equal.
Teaching strategies used in collaborative learning:
1 - The difference according to the student sections of collection:
Students work in teams organized into groups composed of a group of four members and their capabilities and different levels and the teacher to provide a lesson or topic to be discussed for students and then students begin to work and participate in their groups and make sure that all members of the group have learned a lesson or topic you want and then Each group discusses the duty entrusted to it and then the teacher choose the students (short tests) and individually for the information they learned then the teacher comparing test results with the levels of students past and are rewarded students who are over in the test with the levels of students past and are rewarded students who are over in the test final grades and previous levels and it takes the application of this strategy approximately 3-5 servings.
2 - teams games and student:
Was among the first strategies of cooperative learning where the use of this strategy the same procedures applied in the initial but it is used instead of testing individual who must take every member of the group test a week or contest weekly at the end of work and are compared to levels of students in one group with students from other groups in terms of their participation in the victory Mjmutem the highest score of any student to compete for the best win of the groups the college.
3 - the fragmentary information:
The teacher in the strategy development of students in the major groups and each group composed of six members to serve on educational activities specific to each member of the group and after Dilk is formed sub-groups consists of members from major groups to discuss the issue or element of the main theme then returns to each of their group The main discussion of the information learned in the sub-group with the group's core benefit to teach members of other groups that discussed this part of the teacher and eventually testing the students individually and identifies the test group, and provides superior reward or a certificate of appreciation in return excellence.
4 - Learning Together:
Is divided the class into groups and each group consists of 4-5 members that are not homogeneous and each group to perform certain duties and each group hand over the work entrusted to it after you finish it and take the reward and praise for what has work and adopt this strategy with the activities of collective constructive, focusing on how collective action among members of the same group, involving the members of each group completed the task assigned to them and help one of them others to learn the material taught private and quizzes that test by one another and the discussions with the team is evaluating groups by short tests given each individual the degree of design and publication at the Each week contains the announcement of the teams that got the highest estimates and learners who have achieved the greatest improvement in grades or who have received final estimates in the quizzes.
5 - mass survey:
Is the distribution of students through this strategy into small groups based on the use of research and investigation and discussion of collective and collaborative planning and consists of one set of 2 - 6 members are divided into the subject to be taught to groups and each group dividing the sub-theme of the functions and duties of individual works by members of the group and then The group preparing to bring its report for discussion and presentation of results for the entire class and is team calendar in the light of the work done by and by.
6 - numbered heads together:
During which the division of teacher learners into groups (3 5) members and each member takes a number ranging from between 1, 5, and is asking the question on learners vary these questions may be very specific, such as:
- What is the name of the Governor of the State of Kuwait is now?
- How many colors flag of the State of Kuwait?
Then Idg educated heads together to make sure that everyone knows the answer then call the teacher number Almno.on unfurled the same number on their hands and provide answers to the classroom.
7 - the difficulties facing the application of cooperative learning:
1 - some feared there were some errors in the process of acquiring knowledge of the learner himself and by his colleagues.
2 - that learners Mrtfie level suffer by placing them in cooperative learning groups with different levels of the lower and middle level in the collection of information
3 - the difficulty of applying cooperative learning in the classroom.
4 - that the social aspect of cooperative learning will take a long time at the expense of the academic side which impedes the end approaches.
5 - The complexity of the problems of classroom management.
6 - The impact of low motivation of some of the learners in the team's performance.
7 - Preparing learners large may impede its application.
8 - needs to be equipped classroom environment in an appropriate manner.
- All these objections were covered by research and the results on the role of the importance of training and selection of appropriate cooperative strategy and specific topics simple and necessary as well as generation of learners convictions about the importance of this method.
Suggestions for organizing the work groups:
1 - The size of groups: groups of numbers ranging from three to six.
2 - Formation of groups: The best way is the way random, it leads to the formation of heterogeneous groups of individuals.
3 - attract the attention of students are working in groups: each group choose an observer watching the teacher's instructions and transmitted to the rest of the group.
4 - to ensure a quiet and reduce the chaos in the high groups: the appointment of a member of the teacher to take over each group urged other individuals at the collaborative work effectively and quietly.
5 - treatment of students who do not want in groups, as well as the use of different games encourage learners to participate.
6 - end the bulk of its work by other groups: the teacher should make sure that the group that completed its work has been completed correctly and carefully. The teacher may limit the time which should be completed by groups of work.
7 - Finish the teacher for group work: When you set to complete the work assigned to it, on one member of each group to sum up (summarize) what they have learned, and must do some kind of activity sheet and also to highlight what has been achieved in the special publications to promote the concept of self-realization.
Second: The problem solving brainstorming
Invented this method Alex Osborne year (1938) the purpose of developing the capacity of individuals to solve problems creatively by allowing them to work together to generate the largest possible number of ideas - the automatic and fast and free - with which to solve the problem single, and then sifting through the ideas and choosing the solution appropriate for it, and was driven so it is not satisfied with the traditional method of the then prevailing in the study of problems which method Conference, which prepared a number of experts to solve the problem, as make all of them his opinion in succession or rotation, giving them the opportunity for discussion at the end of the meeting, due to revelations this traditional method of failure to reach innovative solutions to many problems.
Was subsequently employ this method in the development of creative thinking for school students, and workers in several fields, including industry, law, advertising, media, trade, education, and finally was introduced as one of the training methods commonly used in training programs, including Bram teacher preparation.
What do we mean way brainstorming? Educational literature abounds in numerous meanings given to this method does not have the space to review here. But it means in the context of this book as follows:
One of the methods the group discussion that encourages whereby members of a group (5 - 12) individuals supervised by the President of her generation needles possible number of diverse ideas various innovative spontaneous, automatic free in a climate of open and non-cash does not limit the release of these ideas concerning solutions to the problem of certain selected in advance, Wen then sifting through these ideas and picking the right ones, and is usually done during the last session, each of the 15 - 20 minutes (average 30 minutes) (an average of 30 minutes)
What steps training style brainstorming?
Here's a n steps that could be implemented in a brainstorming training programs:
1 - select a group of training (number 5 - 10 members of the president or scheduled moderator, preferably to be an expert on how to apply the rules of this method in training. And so be able to create an atmosphere open to dialogue and brainstorming is characterized by humor, and if only the experts of the problem subject dialogue any topic brainstorming, the group also choose a secretary who logs what is being offered at the meeting.
2 - The President shall define brainstorming method when applied for the first time to the rest of the training group.
3 - The President putting the problem and its dimensions for the rest of the group and can be used as teaching aids available for this purpose, and allows them to discuss the problem briefly to make sure they understood them, and examples of these problems:
How to behave if a student asks a question you did not know an answer to it in
Alto, and the student insists that embarrassed the rest of the students?
3 - The President reminds the members of the group the basic rules of brainstorming, which they introduced - has been written on the plate was in front of the group - he says to them:
A - Avoid criticism of the ideas you and others do not mock any notion whatsoever.
B - voicing your ideas freely and spontaneously and without hesitation, no matter what kind or
Level or realism as long as the problem related to the theme of dialogue
C - Just ask the biggest possible quantity n ideas.
D - made additions to the ideas of others without criticism of her.
4 - The President opens the door for members of the group to present their ideas about the problem and writes the secretary of these ideas on the blackboard - or other tools of the show - go without recording the names of those who raised it.
5 - When you stop a torrent of ideas to stop President suspended the meeting for a minute to think about new ideas and read the ideas in advance, in retrospect, and then open the door again to check new ideas of freedom and are written to date. In the case of lack of ideas it tries to Asttharthm terms or words that have generated more of these ideas, as it offers a d of his ideas.
6 - end dimension of the group put up the largest quantity of ideas. Assess the ideas is one of two ways:
A - evaluation by the small group:
It consists of n President, three members of the group are selected by the group or by the president and evaluation is in the light of the following points:
- Examining, or a quick review of the lists of ideas (solutions), to make sure not to overlook any of the creative ideas.
- Out ideas on the following criteria: novelty, originality, utility, logical solution, cost, and the extent of urine, and the timetable for implementation and there are specific criteria depending on the type of problem.
- The exclusion of ideas that were not consistent with the above criteria.
- Classification of ideas remaining in the package of the previous packages, and apply the same standards as the former once again in order to find the best ideas
B - evaluation by all members of the group:
Provide everyone with a list of ideas that have been reached through the brainstorming session, and the selection (10%) of the ideas as the best solutions and then hand over to the commander of the meeting.
Here are ideas that have been chosen by all members of the group are the ideas featured in this case can also be used appropriate statistical techniques to reach this result (the order of excellent ideas)
What are the benefits method of brainstorming?
There are several advantages concerning the use of brainstorming in the field of teaching to the most important point briefly:
1 - Easy to apply: there needs to be trained by the users of long training programs.
2 - economic: does not usually require more than a suitable venue and a blackboard, chalk, some papers and pens.
3 - and delightfully entertaining.
4 - grown creative thinking / creative.
5 - grown habits of thought useful.
6 - grown self-confidence by asking the individual his or her views freely without fear of criticism by others.
7 - grown the ability to express freely.
8 - lead to the emergence of innovative ideas to solve problems.
The determinants of method of brainstorming?
May be taken on this approach is that it depends on the individuals put their ideas to solve the problem quickly and spontaneously, and then it limits the effectiveness of individuals to search for more original solutions (innovative) and the solutions are therefore distinguish normal and modest.
Applied to solve problems in creative ways
Is the process of six stages follow in order to solve problems in creative ways, thereby creating the graduated steps and the Organization effective plan of action in decision-making and requires skill to solve problems creatively recruitment strategy brainstorming Golden at every stage in order to increase the likelihood of obtaining the best solution to this problem and has been amended way to align levels of children in order to enable them to apply.
1 - identify the problem or error.
2 - a fact-finding and information: Get as much information as possible about the problem using: Who? Why? Where? When? How?
3 - to detect the problem or bug: Select sub-type problems, formulation of the problem as: (In what ways I might ...?)
4 - Find ideas: Collect ideas to solve the problem.
5 - Choosing a Solution / Evaluation: Values of available solutions, and according to standards set.
6 - Acceptance of the solution: he decided to put the solution into use through a plan of action.
With colleagues you intend to prepare for a surprise party in honor of a fellow trooper. However, this friend Ibatkm news about his intention to go on a trip with his parents in sync with the same day that you decide to establish a concert. How to behave toward this situation?
• What important facts that can be recalled in that situation?
• Select the main problem.
• Think about ways to resolve the problem.
• Choose the best five ideas on trade-offs between the different possibilities in each idea.
Mahkat / standards
The best ideas can I do? Is it possible to implement? Total other criteria
• the values of each idea on the scale of grades 1-5 research calculated the number (1) to the least degree is calculated figure (5) the highest degree.
• Collect the grade of each idea.
• The best solution is ------------------------------------
Addressed the practice of
The use of such attitudes:
How to act when:
Boxiaik play your little brother and destroy?
Garbage piling up in most of the school?
Learning how to play
Is teaching using educational games from the main road strategies teaching that takes into account the psychology of learners, it is where it becomes the learner a positive role in the advantage of being an active and effective in the classroom to the nature of this teaching method of interaction between the teacher and learners during the learning process through activities and educational games and then developed in a manner the organization.
Educational Games is one of the entrances to the main teaching actively interested in learning and personal development and favorable as comprehensive development in various aspects of it is concerned with embodying the abstract concepts.
Enticed by the learner to interact with the educational situations, with all of the good teaching materials and educational activities targeted.
Advantages of educational games
1 - To provide the learner experience closer to practice.
2 - help to increase the learners through positive social interaction during
3 - you win learn many types of learners (knowledge, skill, and emotional)
4 - help to achieve the objectives and functional information such as the ability to apply facts, concepts and principles in different life situations.
5 - in the implementation of educational games there is an atmosphere of fun and relaxation and interaction, which leads to increased learning.
6 - Make fun, entertainment and activity at the individual.
7 - offers educational games opportunity for the growth of imagination and innovative thinking.
8 - Development of the ability to communicate and interact with others or develop social terms of individuals and instil in them respect for others.
9 - Increase Suspense learners to the learning process.
10 - is gaining attention Note educated and familiar with the speed of thought in resolving the difficulties.
11 - to help students to passive participants as positive through social interaction.
12 - develop the mental side and provoke the mind to think.
Criteria for selection of educational games 1 -
1 - to be related to the educational objectives and educational.
2 - Games appropriate to age and level of mental and physical development and social development.
3 - should be free of complexity and utter simplicity and implemented according to the rules.
4 - to raise the skill of thinking and innovation, observation and reflection of learners.
5 - should be free of the risks of learners.
6 - knowing the learners autonomy and freedom during game play.
7 - to fit the game the number of learners so that there be a child but an act of his.
8 - that there be a standard of clear and specific to win the game.
Steps to implement educational games:
First: the preparation phase and implementation
1 - Develop a list of materials and tools used in play.
2 - try the game before use.
3 - determine the execution time and place.
4 - Identification of implementation steps, how to start and how it ends.
5 - defining roles and development of laws and explain the criteria.
6 - the creation of the minds of learners and Tchougahm of the game, and stimulating their interest and to clarify the interest of the game.
7 - to achieve what is expected to achieve by the end of the game the game may require the order of pictures or writing
The name of the image in a given time
8 - taking into account individual differences in the distribution of learners in terms of speed of delivery and ability to focus in order not to cause the game to frustrate the learners.
9 - attention to the response of each team to compete.
10 - no comparison between the performance of learners in the game but to enhance the strengths enthusiasm and broadcast them.
11 - Participation of the teacher in the game it is an opportunity for close contact with their
Second: The stage of the calendar:
1 - no proposals to evaluate the game after its implementation.
2 - as much as everyone's efforts will not decrease the initial estimate effort Sun lead to success.
Type in the games that lead to the acquisition of skills and different experiences.
The simulation methods of teaching, which gives an example of a natural complex of relations, whether human or not human and addressed by the teacher at the face of the learners in the classroom where he works to bring abstract ideas to the minds of learners by using past experience and educational experience.
Can be defined for the simulation game as a way in which learners represent the roles of social, historical or functional in the form of talk show representative.
Importance of teaching method of simulation:
1 - narrowing the gap between advanced and backward in education and grow with the ability to make a decision.
2 - encourage learners to express an opinion.
3 - achievement motivation of learners is Alilqaii cancel routine in teaching movement and the role of listening to the role of participation and instil confidence in the learner shy.
4 - configure critical thinking for knowledge.
5 - returning learners to take responsibility.
6 - empathy and emotional potential of learners with each other.
Advantages of simulation mode:
1 - characterized by lively movement and activity by the learner.
2 - develop many of the skills of research.
3 - develop the capacity to make a speech and expression of ideas.
4 - develop a spirit of inquiry, curiosity.
5 - develop many social skills.
6 - help the depth of scientific material and not to forget.
Stages of building the simulation game (steps): 1
1 - identify the educational objectives and to ascertain the extent achieved through the exercise of the game.
2 - Defining the key concept or process that the teacher wishes to focus on through the game.
3 - Determine the area of the game and content.
4 - Determination of the process of interaction in the game and described the roles of the players.
5 - the game you need to determine what equipment and tools from 0 (Pictures - Samples
(Leaves - Movies - Cards - Maps .... etc)
6 - to identify the participants in groups assigned a commander he is responsible for implementation of all the responsibilities that are distributed to members of the game.
Is the mental process of perception interact with the experience and intelligence to achieve the goal of indivisible thinking about intelligence and creativity, but capabilities are interrelated and include reflection on the monetary side and the creative side of any defense to include logic and generate ideas for it. Need to think of motivation pays or must remove the obstacles that something to stop to avoid mistakes and falling into the psychology of qualified and equipped to do.
Thinking skills can be summarized as follows to: -
1 - Skills of the psychological and educational
2 - skills related to sensory perception, information and expertise
3 - Skills for the elimination of obstacles and avoid the mistakes of thinking.
* Identify types of thinking by:
1 - 4 of scientific thinking - creative thinking
2 - 5 logical thinking - thinking Kharafi
3 - 6 Critical thinking - Thinking authoritarianism.
* Elements of successful teaching thinking:
To succeed to the process of thinking it is essential to provide a number of important elements, which are: -
A qualified teacher is the most important and effective elements of a successful process of thinking desired by the teacher, which should be characterized by:
1 - knowledge of the characteristics of effective thinking and thinking skills miscellaneous
2 - Belief in the importance of thinking.
3 - Follow-up developments in the field of educational curricula and teaching methods.
4 - Encourage learners to ask questions and express their thoughts and perspectives.
5 - listen for the performance of learners and accept their ideas and comments.
6 - taking into account individual differences among learners when raising activities.
7 - encourage learners to participate in solving problems and making decisions.
8 - Focus on the debate as one of effective ways to provoke reflection.
9 - to encourage active learning beyond the limits of sitting Alicefa negative observation and comparison and classification and solving problems.
10 - attention to the application of self-learning.
11 - the use of expressions and phrases related to thinking skills and processes.
12 - The need to avoid the teacher to use the terms that limit the process of thinking
13 - The need to use the teacher for expressions or words encouraging with learners like I have approached the correct answer, and whether you have to add said?
Second: The classroom environment and the school: -
So take a school of their pioneering role in creating the learning environment to provoke thought, it must provide: -
1 - Belief that all individuals within the school of their importance in the development of thinking and learning 2 - Concentration of the school curriculum on the thinking process.
3 - the need for a sound educational environment where security and safety for the relation of teacher and learner School Administration
There is no doubt that the classroom climate plays an important role in provoking thought and development of learners,
As numbers of health and educational means diverse and new ways of teaching and learning activities suited to the individual differences with the use of computer and Internet are all broad areas of teacher can successfully be used to encourage learners to think and creativity. There is a set of characteristics that must be met within the classroom to be appropriate to consider the effective and that is to : -
1 - The importance of the participation of the teacher to his disciples, participation and interaction so that no monopoly
Most of the time share in the commentary.
2 - an abundance of educational resources from various references, books and tools .... Etc..
3 - Paying attention to the teacher the learner as the focus of the educational process.
4 - The need to ask the teacher for thought-provoking questions such as [How? لماذا? What do you think?
5 - the need for the teacher to respond to the interventions of learners and comments.
6 - The need to focus on the part of the teacher to accept the views of the importance of and respect for others.
7 - to allow the learners to express what they even think about touring.
8 - respect for the opinion or decision of the majority even if it was against the opinion of the individual.
III: methods of evaluation:
If the teacher and the school environment and classroom were the pillars of the success of the teaching of thinking, the third pillar is the variety of evaluation methods to resolve the need to measure what they have learned learners. Here we should not be limited to the choices of interpretation and translation only, but must be used with other techniques Kalmlahzp, group discussion, and the graph and played the role of observation and reporting of individual and collective.
Types of thinking skills:
* We will address one of these skills, a skill of asking the question can be defined skill of asking the question or accountability as: -
Skill that is used to enhance the quality of information through a survey requires a student to ask questions or drafting players or choose the best ones.
* Steps skill to ask questions: -
The most important steps skill to ask questions at the following: -
1 - select the domain, topic, or issue or the person nominated to the question of
2 - modern information and data related to the field.
3 - the formulation of questions and answers posed to represent a framework of information when areas that are not known to the learners, especially when questions are open.
4 - make a list of additional questions other than those not known to the learners and that appears
From time to time.
5 - Evaluating what has been accessed from the level of knowledge.
* Link the skill to ask questions the school curriculum:
Full responsibility rests with the teacher at work on linking intellectual skill curriculum school and be by: -
1 - the teacher put a question to be twenty is the leader of the accountability process first and then transfer the role to learners, to be followed by the analysis process to identify the strengths and weaknesses.
2 - Training of learners on the speed appropriate to ask questions, especially after reading a particular topic.
3 - Design interview questions put to the learner or a group of learners on the issue or a specific topic.
Characteristics of good questions in the skill of accountability: -
Questions should be characterized as follows: -
1 - clarity in the language and the absence of any kind of ambiguity
2 - Clarity of purpose.
3 - brief or minors in the wording of the question
4 - relevance of questions of the capacities of learners and levels of mental and previous experience.
5 - taking into account the individual differences not only in mental capacity, but in the interests
6 - the diversity of questions in terms of ease and difficulty.
7 - the inclusion in question is just one idea.
8 - should not answer the question suggests.
9 - Avoid asking questions in the textbook literally.
10 - questions comprehensiveness of the topic under discussion and not for a small part of it.
11 - The need to ask easy questions first average difficulty II and III difficult
* Alia, the duty to be taken into account during the process of asking questions.
Should the teacher about the questions into account a number of things which are: -
1 - The need to ask the question to the entire class, not an educated one, except in special cases
Wish the teacher from behind to raise attention of the learner or encouragement to participate.
2 - The need to first ask the question clearly, and then choose one of the learners to answer
And not vice versa.
3 - to wait a short period of time ranging between (3-5) seconds after launching the teacher
The question before determining the learner to answer.
4 - To encourage all learners to participate in answering the questions.
5 - Use of different forms of promotion to encourage learners to participate in the answer
6 - Avoid the teacher for contempt or ridicule of the answer to some learners.
7 - encourage learners to adhere to the ethics and the ethics of accountability and debate, led by
Sources and references:
Effective teaching skills
D / Zaid Huwaidi in 2005
Introduction to Teaching
D / Blissett Mohsen Fatlawi in 2003
Teaching Social Studies
D / Jehan Kamal El in 2002
Note the course in effective teaching methods
For teachers of social studies
A / Nihat absolute A / Sayyid Shihab Melegy 2000 / 2001 م
Note the training course for teachers new to special education schools.
A / Fawzia Fahed Al Rashed 2003 / 2004 م
Teaching methods in the twenty-first century
D / Abdul Latif bin Hussein Faraj
Teaching Thinking Skills
A / D / HE Ahmad Jawdat in 2003
Thread is moved and the Mona Complex to benefit the masters of teachers