* Tragedy …= have sad ending (death of main character …)
* Comedy …= have happy ending (marriage...)
Origins of Tragedy Greek drama:
It is “religious” origin. Begin with worship Dionysius (God of fertility and vineyards)
*Aristotle is a Greek critic. His book is “Poetics”
Definition of Tragedy by Aristotle:
A tragedy is the imitation of an action that is serious has magnitude and is complete in itself , in pleasurable language , with rhythm harmony , in a dramatic rather than narrative form , and with incidents arousing our pity and fear , whereby to provide on outlet (catharsis) for such emotions ...
Imitation: reflection, representation
Serious: # trivial,
Language of tragedy is poetic, sublime (Serious)
Magnitude: size, length (start, middle and end)
Why tragedies have Magnitude?!
To allow the character go through happiness to misery
- - -
Dramatic rather than narrative form means action presented in acted (not narrated) in dramatic form.
Pity: feel sorry Fear: be afraid
Tragedy arousing cretin feeling in our self “pity and fear”. Outlet: exit, clean our feeling from inside Catharsis: purgation تطهير
A plot should be long enough to allow the hero pass from the happiness to misery
order: beginning, middle, and ending
unity: the plot must represent complete whole and one action. And any incident must be part of the main action.
The action of tragedy involvers:
Periphery: is the sudden change of torture to its opposite in a play Discovery: the revelation of facts which are unknown to the hero..0 Suffering: the experience of pain and distress caused by grief, loss, wounds
The three elements of action must give rise to pity and fear. Pity: for undeserved misfortune. Fear: for misfortune of a man like ourselves.
The resolution ‘spectator’
Catharsis (purgation ’purged: clean’)
The stage appearance (machinery, costume) it tell about place – time and aids characterization
Main character => tragic hero
He ought to be a good person, having qualities of excellence and nobleness
His misfortune comes to him, not because he is morally corrupted BUT by some error of judgment (tragic flow). Flow: defect “something wrong”.
D. Diction: ...0
The expression of thought in words, it is conveyed through dialogue between the characters to give ideas about their personalities...0
The language of tragedy must be poetic, sublime (not mean) and it must be pleasurable, it must have rhythm...0
The musical element in Greek tragedy refers to the true & music at the verse +, songs of chorus -chorus contributes to the melody
Chorus: group of singer who serve as commentators on the dramatic action. ..0
The ideas of a given character. It is expressed by speech and diction.
Aristotle believes that thought must be universal and simple in order to appeal to the majority...0
The time between 10th and the firs half of 17th century. And it has flourishing of literature (a lot of it during this time)
How Elizabethan drama influence?..0
By Seneca “A Roman playwrights”
So, what happen?
1) Provided the model for Shakespearean drama of five act play
2) Provided the model for Shakespearean revenge tragedy
3) Seneca’s favorite material (blood, murder, revenge, mutilation, ghosts)
Why the playwrite like present Seneca material?
Because the Elizabethan audiences love this material (love blood) .They has apatite on it
e.g. Shakespeare: Hamlet Titus Andronicus Marlowe: The Jew of Malts.
Major Deviations of Elizabethan (Shakespearean) drama from the Aristotle model:.
(1) Unity :
Unity of action is in Aristotle tragedy. After that In Italy and France in 16th century they add more “unity of action, unity of place, unity of time” that mean (the action should be one whole and take place in one day and in one place)
The Elizabethan drama violated these three unities. Because the three unities were not strictly followed by Shakespearean drama.
# Unity of action: more than one main action ((subplot))
# Unity of place: more than one place
# Unity of time: more than one day
(2) The Elizabethan deviated from the Greek model by introducing humorous character + scenes to the tragedy. It was called: [comic Relife]
(3) Elizabethan drama developed a new mode called tragicomedy e.g. Shakespeare: Troilus and Cressida.
(4) Soliloquies and “aside”: Soliloquies: a speech, often a long one, in which a character alone on stage express his/her thoughts and feelings. Aside”: the character is not alone + and not long.
After that, in 19th century they do not use it more
*Aristotle dishing use comedy from tragedy by saying that comedy deals with ordinary character in rather everyday situations in an amusing way.
*It imitates inferior action (ridiculous)
It begins with misfortune and ends in happiness
*Character in comedy run into dangers that are neither serious nor pressing.
*In style (diction, action…) it must be humble while tragedy is lofty (sublime) language.
#At the Renaissance (a great revival of arts, literature. learning in 14th, 15th, 16th centuries based on classical sources). It marked different view of comedy
*- the purpose of comedy is moralistic (and not just entertainment). It has moral purposes correcting the mistake of the society.