It is using related knowledge to shed light on a new subject. Students use their senses, prior knowledge, and imaginations to make connections to ideas and processes that were new to them. Students also learn to consider multiple interpretations and to see themselves as contributors to their own and other students' learning experiences. The “mouth” of a river, the “eye” of a needle, and the “heart” of the matter, represent metaphorical extensions of parts
of the body.
Literal analogies: (for example, “a dragonfly is like a butterfly”) involves a close similarity between the characteristics of the analogous information and the new information which is to be understood. Metaphorical analogies, involve the comparison of disparate types of information and a large stretch of the imagination is required for the similarities to be recognized. individual differences exist between those who seek literal, “tightly mapped” and complete analogies and those who enjoy more unusual loose, incompletely mapped analogies. Those who enjoy loose analogies are more likely to display Metaphoric intelligence.
Metaphoric Thinking is a powerful motivator for students because it integrates the affective realm with the cognitive, and it both accesses and affirms students' prior knowledge.
Metaphoric Thinking is an open-ended, interactive, complex process that enables students to make empathic and imaginative associations between dissimilar concepts and to interpret one element in multiple ways. It is also a way to compress complex information into one word or image to produce a kind of shorthand of meaning. Metaphors enable students to put seemingly inexpressible thoughts and feelings into symbolic form, and they make ideas more immediate and aesthetically engaging (Feinstein, 1996).
An understanding of Metaphoric Thinking helps students to learn complex concepts as well to generate ideas for their own research, writing, or other creative work. Writing and talking about metaphors raises questions and responses about a subject that can be further investigated through reading and discussion. After students develop an ability to imagine how something or someone feels, thinks, grows, and responds to its environment, they can go on to learn about this subject in other ways. 1.it enriches language production and facilitates comprehension of Metaphoric expressions. 2. It contributes positively to an overall level of communicative competence. Pupils are therefore able to increase both their fluency and their overall communicative effectiveness 3.it develops pupil's critical Thinking abilities. 4.enhance students' abilities to write and read verbal texts with a greater sense of connection and insight.
moon-nuts (for cashew nuts) and car-milk (for petrol). “the economy is a sick patient”.
Teaching Tips: Metaphors are tools for insight, for creativity, for concept development, for learning, for true understanding. It is with metaphor that we can unlock the part of our minds that schools have traditionally left closed and untapped, the part of our minds where conceptual imagery resides, the right hemisphere....Metaphoric teaching prompts the affective insight that enhances cognitive knowledge-building. It is a process that is both creative and experiential. As teachers (and learners) we face ongoing, daily frustration over forgotten facts and misunderstood concepts; Metaphoric teaching responds to this frustration and offers new possibilities for encouraging student learning. Metaphors are at the center of how we know and express our understanding of ourselves and the world around us. Through metaphors, we are able to think about one concept, such as "community," in terms of another, such as "circle."
Difficulties: Students used to believe that there are only right and wrong answers and that the teacher is the final authority of the truth (Baxter Magolda, 1992). They become uneasy when they are asked to construct their own understanding of a subject, and they may believe that the seemingly subjective, ambiguous nature of Metaphoric Thinking is not part of a real education. In addition, some students experience a "fear of metaphor" (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, p. 191) if they are apprehensive about exploring the unknown, making mistakes, or showing their emotions in an academic setting.
Solustion: 1.To use personal analogy: "I am..." 2. to give pupils pictures of items for which they do not know the word in the target language, and to ask them to describe these pictures to a friend who will have to guess what is in them. In order to complete this task, both the speaker and the listener may well be obliged to use their “metaphoric” imagination. 3. asking the students to describe the same concept using alternative metaphors. 4. Metaphor can also be used for vocabulary building. Students can be presented with a central, underlying conceptual metaphor (such as “society is a body”) and asked to come up with as many possible manifestations of the metaphor as possible. 5. metaphor can be used to help students learn prepositions and phrasal verbs. Expressions such as “look up to someone”, “dress down for the evening”, and “look forward to something”can be traced to the original conceptual metaphors of “good is up”, “bad is down”, and “time is a journey”.