of administrative texts. Although administrative has a very broad meaning, in terms of Translation
it refers to common texts used within businesses and organisations that are used in day to day management. It can also be stretched to cover texts with similar functions in government. Commercial translation
or business Translation
covers any sort of document used in the business world such as correspondence, company accounts, tender documents, reports, etc. Commercial translations require specialiast translators with knowledge of terminology used in the business world. Computer translation
Not to be confused with CAT, computer assisted translations, which refer to translations carried out by software. Computer Translation
is the Translation
of anything to do with computers such as software, manuals, help files, etc. Economic translation
Similar to commercial or business translation, economic Translation
is simply a more specific term used for the Translation
of documents relating to the field of economics. Such texts are usually a lot more academic in nature. Financial translation
is the Translation
of texts of a financial nature. Anything from banking to asset management to stocks and bonds could be covered. General translation
A general Translation
is the simplest of translations. A general text means that the language used is not high level and to a certain extent could be in layman's terms. There is no specific or technical terminology used. Most translations carried out fall under this category. Legal translation
Legal translations are one of the trickiest translations known. At its simplest level it means the Translation
of legal documents such as statutes, contracts and treaties.
A legal Translation
will always need specialist attention. This is because law is culture-dependent and requires a translator with an excellent understanding of both the source and target cultures.
agencies would only ever use professional legal to undertake such work. This is because there is no real margin for error; the mistranslation of a passage in a contract could, for example, have disastrous consequences.
When translating a text within the field of law, the translator should keep the following in mind. The legal system of the source text is structured in a way that suits that culture and this is reflected in the legal language; similarly, the target text is to be read by someone who is familiar with another legal system and its language. Literary translation
A literary Translation
is the Translation
of literature such as novels, poems, plays and poems.
of literary works is considered by many one of the highest forms of Translation
as it involves so much more than simply translating text. A literary translator must be capable of also translating feelings, cultural nuances, humour and other subtle elements of a piece of work.
Some go as far as to say that literary translations are not really possible. In 1959 the Russian-born linguist Roman Jakobson went as far as to declare that "poetry by definition [was] untranslatable". In 1974 the American poet James Merrill wrote a poem, "Lost in Translation," which in part explores this subject. Medical translation
A medical Translation
will cover anything from the medical field from the packaging of medicine to manuals for medical equipments to medical books.
Like legal translation, medical Translation
is specialisation where a mistranslation can have grave consequences. Technical translation
A technical Translation
has a broad meaning. It usually refers to certain fields such as IT or manufacturing and deals with texts such as manuals and instructions. Technical translations are usually more expensive than general translations as they contain a high amount of terminology that only a specialist translator could deal with