Phonology What is Phonology? First we should know that the study of speech sounds is: 1- Phonetics. 2- Phonology. Phonetics is concerns with the following: 1- Auditory. 2- acoustic. 3- articulatory. ▪ Phonetics is the study of how the speech sounds are produced. ▪ Phonology is the physical properties or aspects. � Phonology on the other hand: ▪ investigates the organization of speech sounds in a particular language. ▪ It is the principle that govern the distribution of these sounds. ▪ It is the mental abstract. To make the difference clear look to the following : Phonetics The Basis for phonological analysis Analyzes the production of allregardless of language
Phonology The basis for further work in morphology, syntax, discourse, and orthograpgy desgin Analyzes the sound patterns of a particular language by:
<li class="MsoNormal" dir="ltr" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; color: rgb(76, 0, 76); direction: ltr; line-height: 150%; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: left;">determining which phonetic sounds are significant, and<li class="MsoNormal" dir="ltr" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt 36pt; color: rgb(76, 0, 76); direction: ltr; line-height: 150%; unicode-bidi: embed; text-align: left;">Explaining how these sounds are interpreted by the native speaker.
Phonemes and Allophones:
It is an abstract entity.
Contrastive/distinctive sound within a particular language���������(notation: /�/)
It is unpredictable
Over lapping distribution occurs in different places.
A physical entity.
Also variant) = sound which counts as an alternative way of saying a phoneme in a particular language (notation: [�])
It is predictable
Occurs in complementary distribution i.e. occurs in certain places.
Variations of the phoneme
/p/voiceless bilabial stop phoneme and have three different pronunciations
[pʰ]means that it is aspirated i.e. when you pronounce it you produce a puff of air like in the word /Pot/. It is aspirated because it comes in initial position of a word or syllable.
[p] It is unaspirated sound and it comes after the /s/ sound like in the word /spot/.
[p̚ ], it comes in final position like in the word /leap/.
[pʰ],[p], [p�] all of them share the main phonetic features it still a voiceless bilabial stop. � Phonetic Complementary distribution: When these sounds �allophones� complete each other and occurring in different environment and can�t take the place of other and it symbolizes as (CD). So, each allophone occurs in its own environment. - /t/ is a voiceless alveolar stop and has different allophones: - [tʰ] aspirated because it is in initial position ex. �tick�. - [t̚]unaspirated after /s/ ex. �stick�. - [ɾ ]� flap , when the /t/ comes between two vowels it is a flap ex. �better� , �pretty� . - [ ] a glottal stop ex. �bottle� also when it becomes between two vowels or vowel and a syllabic /m/ , /n/ , /ŋ/ or /l/ . � ▪ Sometimes some allophones are considered in some language as a phoneme Minimal pair: Word pairs whose sound structures are identical except one minimal difference, a single sound segment that occurs in the same place in the string - The substitution of one for the other makes a different word, e.g. crick and creek (all the possible variations - crick, creek, crook, croak, crake, crack and crock constitute a minimal set). -They are used to demonstrate that two phones constitute two separate phonemes in the language. -An example for English consonants is the minimal pair of "pat" + "bat". In phonetics, this pair, like any other, differs in number of ways. In this case, the contrast appears largely to be conveyed with a difference in the voice onset time of the initial consonant as the configuration of the mouth is same for [p] and [b]; however, there is also a possible difference in duration, which visual analysis using high quality video supports. Free variation Two sounds occur in the same environment doesn�t change the meaning and they can�t be in minimal pairs because they are allophones not phoneme. � Free variation vs. complementary distribution: - Complementary distribution: allophonic variation dependent on the phonetic environment the phoneme occurs in e.g. [ɫ] vs. [l] in English �� - Free variation: allophonic variation independent of the phonetic environment the phoneme occurs in; random interchangeability. - Example of free variation of a consonantal phoneme: - Realization of word-initial th (as in then, this, there) as either [�] or [d] (possibly due to reasons of unawareness or indifference of choice) - [�] and [d]: free variants (freely fluctuating allophones) of the phoneme; unconditioned by their phonetic environment.