What is literature? Why do we read it? Why is Literature important?
Literature is a term used to describe written or spoken material. Broadly speaking, "literature" is used to describe anything from creative writing to more technical or scientific works, but the term is most commonly used to refer to works of the creative imagination, including works of poetry, drama, fiction, and nonfiction.
Why do we read literature?
Literature represents a language or a people: culture and tradition. But, Literature is more important than just a historical or cultural artifact. Literature introduces us to new worlds of experience. We learn about books and literature; we enjoy the comedies and the tragedies of poems, stories, and plays; and we may even grow and evolve through our literary journey with books.
Ultimately, we may discover meaning in Literature by looking at what the author says and how he/she says it. We may interpret the author's message. In academic circles, this decoding of the text is often carried out through the use of literary theory, using a mythological, sociological, psychological, historical, or other approach.
Whatever critical paradigm we use to discuss and analyze literature, there is still an artistic quality to the works. Literature is important to us because it speaks to us, it is universal, and it affects us. Even when it is ugly, Literature is beautiful
Poetry has no specific definiton; each poet or reader might describe it in his/her own way. William Wordsworth for example, states that poetry is "the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings."
Poetry is one of the oldest and most respected forms of literautre. In all ages, it was considered important and was taken with such seriousness.
Moreover, the langauge of poetry says more than what it shows, each word can be looked at from a different angle according to the reader's experiance. In other words, a poem does not only reflect the poet's thoughts, but it can also reflect the reader's.
Poetry's main foundations are experiences and emotions . For example, a poet can think about a specific incident, seek for the emotions that lay behind it, and finally write those emotions down in his own words using his own or specific style.
Poetry can also be put to many uses, from telling long stories to presenting some small piece of writing by the poet concerning his emotions or thoughts.
Furthermore, poetry is formed by sounds and syllables combined in distinctive and sometimes rhythmic ways. It can rhyme or have no rhyme to it at all. It can have a structure or none at all.
One of the most famous forms of poetry is the sonnet, a style used by Shakespeare and many others. A sonnet is a fourteen-line poem which strictly follows a patterned rhyme scheme.
Also, some poets do not prefer following strict rules and rather describe their poetic thoughts in prose
How to read a poem
As easy as it sounds, reading a poem is one of the most detailed aspects of poetry. A poem's message might seem unclear or misunderstood if it was not read in the proper way. First of all, you should read the poem slowly and try to grasp its main idea, if you still did not get it, try reading it aloud. Each time you read it, your perspective of the poem changes and complex sentences become clear. If you still did not understand the poem, use a dictionary to help you with the difficult words. After that, gather all the figurative speech it contains, and explore them one by one. When you have reached this far, read it again to get the poem as a whole
It is the language that a poet uses to add creativity and depth to his poem. They are not taken in their literal form but rather depend on the poet and reader's imagination. Figurative language consists of simile, metaphor, personification, apostrophe, metonymy, symbols, allegory, paradox, over statement, understatement, and irony.
Denotation: It refers to the literal meaning of a word, the "dictionary definition." For example, if you look up the word sky in a dictionary, it will tell you that it is a visible mass of condensed droplets or frozen water floating in the atmosphere above the surface of the Earth. (dictionary.com)
Connotation: It refers to the related thoughts or emotions connected to a certain word. For example, if you look at the word sky in a poem, the poet does not use it to refer to a mass of condensed water, but he is actually using it to refer to emotions such as freedom, calmness, or even solitude.
Imagery: They are the pictures used in a poem which we understand using our mind's eyes, ears, nose, tongue, or skin. It is strongly connected to connotation. For example, when the poet uses the word "winter" as an image, we can almost "feel" its coldness using our skin and "look" at its darkness using our eyes. By this method, we can understand that the poet is trying to show such feelings of coldness and darkness.
Simile: It is when you compare two nouns (persons, places or things) that are unalike using the words "like" or "as." The first word is taken literally, while the second word is taken figuratively. For example, "Her eyes are like diamonds", eyes and diamonds have little in common, yet they are strongly related in an important way to the poet, to him, the "eyes" glow or shine like a "diamond."
Metaphor: It is almost like Simile but without using the words "like" or "as". For example, “Time is money.” Here, the poet did not use "like" to connect the two words.
Furthermore, there are four different kinds of metaphors; the first form is when the poet mentions the literal and figurative terms. For example, "Love is a knife which cuts through the heart". Here, the literal term "love" and the figurative term "knife" are mentioned.
The second form is when the poet mentions the literal term but does not mention the figurative term. For example, "Love cuts through the heart." Judging by the poet's use of vocabulary, we can predict that the figurative term is "knife."
The third form is when the poet mentions the figurative term but does not mention the literal term. For example, "A knife that cuts through the heart", by reading the poem, we can predict that the poet is talking about "love."
The forth form is when the poet does not mention the figurative nor the literal terms. For example, "It cuts through the heart." By reading the poem and fully understanding it, we can predict that the poet is talking about love and comparing it to a knife.
Personification: It is when the poet allows inanimate objects to have human qualities. For example, "The moon looked at me in anger". The moon does not have eyes, yet, the poet gave it that quality to see in order to add creativity and depth to his poem.
Apostrophe: There are 2 forms of apostrophe, the first form is when the poet talks to someone dead as if he/she was right there in front of him/her, and can respond to what he is saying. For example, if the poet is talking about his dead wife, he would say: "Oh dear love, why did you leave?"
The second form is when the poet talks to something inhuman as if it is in front of him/her and can respond to what he/she is saying. For example, "Cold rain let me be". Here, the poet is talking to the rain and asking it to leave him/her alone as if it was human.
Symbol: A symbol is the heaviest and the hardest form of figurative speech. The word a poet uses as a symbol means what it really is and something more. In other words, both its literal and figurative meanings are considered important. For example, if the poet says, "A flower needs water to grow". The words flower and water here are considered symbols. It is true that flowers need water to grow. In addition to that, the poet gives these words an extra meaning, the word flower might refer to many things such as a little girl, and the word water might refer to many things such as love. In all, a symbol means what it is and something more.
Allegory: An Allegory is a story that has a second meaning to it. Good examples for allegory are the stories we see in our dreams. These dreams do not really mean something until you ask someone to explain the symbols it hides for you. In other words, allegory is a story filled with symbols placed in a poem. The Faerie Queene by Edmund Spenser is a good example (hyperlink will be added here)
Paradox: It is statement which is formed of two parts; both seem contradictory yet make sense with more thought. For example, "They have ears but hear not." In here, 2 contradicting sentences are put together, yet, how can people have ears but cannot hear? By reading the line again, we can understand what the poet is trying to say, that people are in a state of denial; they have ears, but they don’t or cannot listen because they are arrogant or stubborn.
Overstatement: It is when a poet exaggerates, but in order to strengthen the truth. For example, "I died when she left." The poet here is exaggerating by saying that he died when his lover left, it did not really happen, but he used this method to show the enormous pain he felt when she was gone.
Understatement: It is simply the opposite of Overstatement. In other words, it is when a poet says less than what should be said about something. For example, "The bullet he shot me with only tickled me." Everybody knows how painful a bullet is; yet, the poet here is saying that it only tickled him. It is of course impossible, but he used this word as a way to mock the enemy and annoy him.
Irony: It is the use of words to express something different or opposite or beyond their literal meaning. An example would be when woman might say, "Interesting," when her husband says something that really isn't interesting, that, is a simple version of what irony is about. In poetry, there are different kinds of irony:
Verbal Irony: It is when a poet says something opposite than what he/she means. It is often confused with sarcasm. For example, "War is the best gift for a man." Of course that cannot be true, for war brings death, loss, and pain. The poet used the method of verbal irony to give it more depth.
Dramatic Irony: It is when the words and actions of the speaker in the poem have a different meaning for the reader than they do for the characters. For example, in the movie Titanic, Rose did not know that Jack didn't steal the diamond; yet, we the audience knew very well that it was Rose's fiancée who made it seem as if Jack stole it. The same example goes in poetry.
Irony of Situation: Irony of a situation is a discrepancy between the expected result and actual results. For example, in the most romantic story of Romeo and Juliet, the reader at first, judging from both Romeo and Juliet's action, will believe that this couple will live happily ever after by the end. Ironically, it ended tragically with their death instead. The same example goes in poetry
The meaning of a poem is the experience it expresses-nothing less.
Distinguishing between the total and the prose meaning of a poem:We should know how to distinguish the total meaning of a poem – the experience it communicates from its prose meaning- the ingredient that can be separated out in the form of a prose paraphrase. If we make this distinction, however we must be careful now to confuse the two kinds of meaning. The prose meaning will not necessarily be an idea. It may be a story, a description, a statement of emotion, a presentation of human character, or some combination of these. Example about the prose and the total meaning from Coleridge's poem, The Rime of The Ancient Mariner:In this poem, the prose meaning is that it tells us a story about what happened to a mariner that committed a crime against nature.The total meaning is that it tells us what will happen when a man commits a crime against nature and how he will be punished severely. It also tells us about the fact that to be loved by God again, you must go back to nature because it's your link to God.Message hunters and poems:Poems that are not directly concerned with ideas will baffle and disappoint the message hunters, for they will not find what they are looking for, and they may attempt to read some idea into the poem that is really not there. Message hunters are likely to think that the whole object of reading the poem is to find the message- that the idea is really the only important thing in it.Idea in a poem:T(1) The idea in a poem is only part of the total experience that it communicates. The value and worth of the poem are determined by the value of the total experience, not by the truth or the nobility of the idea itself. This is not to say that the truth of the idea is unimportant. But a good idea alone will not make a good poem, nor need an idea with which the reader doesn't agree ruin one.Good Poetry's Readers: (A)They are receptive to all kinds of experience. They are able to make that "willing suspension of disbelief" that Coleridge characterized in his ballad (The Rime of The Ancient Mariner). Why did Coleridge used the willing suspension of disbelief in his poem and how? Why: he uses the natural as a way in order to enable his readers to believe the supernatural events that he narrates. In this way, he also captures their interest as they relay on natural events to imagine what is supernatural, so imagination is very important.How: a-He refers to dreams as a way of creating willing suspension of disbelief. So he talks about a natural thing (dream) to make the readers believe the supernatural. The conversation between the two voices happened while he was unconscious and once the mariner came back to his conscious, the ship moved slowly again. This is to create the willing suspension of disbelief: he makes us believe that what happened was more like in a dram. b-Glittering eye: the mariner eyes are full of mystery. Such description of the eyes creates a mysterious mode for the poem. The eyes are mentioned throughout the poem many times to prepare us to feel that there's something not natural in the things to be unfold so he creates the willing suspension of disbelief.(B)Poetry readers should be willing to entertain imaginatively, for the time being, ideas they objectively regard as untrue.(C)If they believe in God, they are able to enjoy a good poem expressing atheistic ideas, just as the atheist should be able to appreciate a good poem in praise of God. (D)If they are optimist, they should be able to find pleasure in pessimistic poetry, and if they are pessimist, they should be able to find pleasure in optimistic poetry. (E)They must feel that the idea has been truly and deeply felt by the poet, and that the poet is doing something more than merely moralizing.
Tone Tone ordinarily refers to all the ways in which a voice may enrich or modify the meanings of spoken words. We are all familiar with the great variety of tones possible in speech. We often sense that a person is saying something quite different from what his words convey: his words may be calm, but his voice agitated; or his words may be pleasant, while his entire manner speaks of impatience or dislike. Tone in poetry, comprises the attitudes of the poet toward his subject and toward his audience, as they can be inferred from the poem. It is the emotional coloring, or the emotional meaning, of the work and is an extremely important part of the full meaning. The importance of tone: A correct interpretation of the tone will be an important part of understanding the full meaning. It may even have rather important consequences. We have not understood a poem unless we have accurately sensed whether the attitude it manifests is playful or solemn, mocking or reverent, calm or excited. But the correct determination of tone in literature is a much more delicate matter than it is with spoken language, for we do not have the speaker's voice to guide us. There is no simple formula for recognizing tone. It is an end product of all the elements in a poem. How tone shows itself? Tone shows itself most often in diction, but also appears in images, cadences, rhythm, or any other events in the poem. To judge fairly about tone, we must consider a poem as a whole. The effects of the parts must be understood in relation to each other. Examples about how the tone reflects the meaning: In the Second Coming by Yeat, Things fall a part: the centre cannot hold Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world The tone is powerfully ominous, and the poet takes the stance of a prophet of doom. In William Blake's introduction of songs of Experience, the tone is complex and painful as the poet's words are mature and experienced as he is no younger piper but a (bard) mature singing poet.
The use of (music) in poetry: A- In poetry, the poet is unlike the person who uses language to convey only information. a- The poet chooses words for sound as well as meaning. b- He uses sound as a means to reinforce meaning. B- it is important enough that some have made it the distinguishing term in their definition of poetry. For instance, Edgar Poe describes poetry as "music combined with a pleasurable idea".
C- Most don't agree that it's that important, but verbal music, like connotation, imagery, figurative language, is one of the important elements in communicating experience.
D- A poet may sometimes pursue verbal music for its own sake, but in the best poetry the music is just a part; it contributes to the total meaning or experience.
E- A poet may achieve musical quality in two ways:
a-through the arrangement of sounds
b- through the arrangement of accents.
The achievement of musical quality through arrangement of sounds:
Repetition of sound:
1- Art consists of giving structure to repetition and variation Examples: a- a baseball game contains the same complex pattern of repetition and variation. b- In art, familiarity and variety combined.
2- Poet also arranges sounds in certain combinations and patterns
3- Poet may repeat any unit of sound from smallest to largestUnits of repetition
a- individual vowel sounds and consonant sounds
b- Whole syllables
D-phrases e- Lines or a group of lines
Example about the repetition from The Rape of The Lock, by Alexander Pop: Restore the lock! She cries all around Restore the lock! The vaulted roofs rebound
In a good poem, the repetition will
a- please the ear
b- Emphasize the words in which the repetition occurs
c- Give structure to the poem
Popularity of repetition of sound seen in clichésRepetition of syllable sounds
A- alliteration: repetition of initial consonant sounds
Example about alliteration from Chimney Sweeper of song of Experience by William Blake: 1
- happy- heath
2- Smiled- snow 3- praise- priest
B- Assonance: repetition of vowel sounds
Example about assonance from Chimney Sweeper of song of experience By William Blake: 1- Clothed- clothes
2- His- king
C- Consonance: repetition of final consonant sounds
Example about consonance from Chimney Sweeper of song of Experience by William Blake:
1- thing- among
2- father- mother
Combinations of repetition of vowel sounds
A- alliteration and assonance
Example about this combination will be from The Chimney Sweeper of Song of innocence by William Blake: Sweep- sleep
B- Alliteration and consonance
Example about this combination will be from The Chimney Sweeper of song of innocence by William Blake: Leaping- laughing
C- Assonance and consonance= rhyme
rhyme: repetition of accented vowel and all succeeding sound
a- masculine rhyme: riming sounds only one syllable
Example about it from The Rape of The Lock, by Alexander Pop:
1- silver- order 2- bold- lord b- Feminine rhyme: two or more syllables
1- Turtle and fertile
2- Spitefully and delightfully
c- Internal rhyme: when one or more riming words are within the rhyme
d- End rhyme: riming words at end of lines
1.Most frequently used and consciously sought type of rhyme
2.Emphasize musical effect, and it along with meter gives poetry not only its musical effect but much of its structure 3.There is a large body of poetry which does not employ rhyme and for which rhyme would be inappropriate.
4.Much of modern poetry tends to substitute approximate rhymes for Perfect rhymes at the end of lines e- Approximate end rhyme:
1- Alliteration, assonance, consonance, or any combination of these When used at the end of lines.
2- half- rhyme: feminine rhymes in which only half the word rhymes
a- accented half- lightly, frightful
b- Unaccented half- yellow, willow
Refrain: when the repetition of a whole words, phrases, lines or Groups of lines is done according to some fixed pattern, it is called refrain.
What various musical repetitions will make for trained readers?
The various musical repetitions, for trained readers, will ordinarily make an almost subconscious contribution to their reading of the poem. Readers will feel their effect without necessarily being aware of what has caused it
Our love of rhythm and meter is rooted even deeper in us than our love of musical repetition. It is related to the beat of our hearts, the pulse of our blood, the intake and outflow of air from our lungs. Everything that we do naturally and gracefully we do rhythmically. There is rhythm in the way we walk and the way we swim. So native is rhythm to us that we read it, when we can, into the mechanical world around us.Definition of Rhythm: The term rhythm refers to the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line. In speech it is the natural rise and fall of language. All language is to some degree rhythmical, for all language involves some kind of alternation between accented and unaccented syllables. Language varies considerably, however, in the degree to which it exhibits rhythm. In some forms of speech the rhythm is so unobtrusive or so unpatterned that we are scarcely, if at all, aware of it. In other forms of speech the rhythm is so pronounced that we may be tempted to tap our foot to it.The importance of Rhythm:Rhythm is essential in poetry and often in prose. Rhythm helps with the flow of your words. It gives pleasure and a more emotional response to the listener or reader because it establishes a pattern of expectations, and rewards the listener or reader with the pleasure that comes from having those expectations fulfilled.Example about Rhythm: In the Rime of the Ancient Mariner, by Samuel Coleridge The guests are met, the feast is set" "Definition of Meter:Meter is the number of feet in a line. In other word the Meter is the measure of rhythm. It is the kind of rhythm we can tap our foot to. In metrical language the accents are arranged to occur apparently equal intervals of time, and it is this interval we mark off with the tap of our foot. Metrical language is called (Verse). Nonmetrical language is (prose).The word Meter comes from a word means" measure". To measure something we must have a unit of measurement. For measuring length we use the inch, the foot and the yard. For measuring verse we use the foot, the line and sometimes the stanza. 1- The Foot: It is the basic metrical unit. It consists normally of one accented syllable plus One or two unaccented syllables, though occasionally there may be no Unaccented syllables, and very rarely there may be three. 2- The Line: It is the secondary unit of measurement. It is a measured by naming the number of feet in it.3- The Stanza: It consists of a group of lines whose metrical pattern is repeated throughout the poem. Sound and Meaning The music of poetry: Rhythm and sound cooperate to produce this music.
The functions that music of poetry may serve: 1- It may be enjoyable in itself. 2- It may used to reinforce meaning and intensify the communication.
The age that the pleasure in sound and rhythm exists in: Pure pleasure in sound and rhythm exists from a very early age in the human being, probably from the age the baby first starts cooing in its cradle, certainly from the age that children begin chanting nursery rimes and skipping rope.
The different between poetry and music: The peculiar function of poetry as distinguished from music, however, is to convey not sounds but meaning or experience through sounds. In third- and fourth-rate poetry, sound and rhythm sometimes distract attention from sense. In first-rate poetry the sound exists not for its own sake nor for mere decoration, but as a medium of meaning. Its function is to support the leading player, nor to steal the scene. - The poet may reinforce meaning through sound in numerous ways: 1- first, the poet can choose words whose sound in some degree suggests their meaning. In its narrowest sense this is called (Onomatopoeia). Onomatopoeia: it refers to words sound is suggestive of itsmeaning. The usefulness of onomatopoeia, of course, is strictly limited, because it can be used only where the poet is describing sound, and most poems do not describe sound.. Example about onomatopoeia: In Anthem for Doomed Youth, of Wilfred Owen, "Stuttering rifles' rapid rattle" The onomatopoeia is shown in the word (rattle). Coleridge uses it to affect the readers or to evoke sympathy from the readers, so they can visualize the same experience. (To show us the suffering of the soldiers) 2- Second, the poet can choose sounds and group them so that the effect is smooth and pleasant sounding (euphonious). Euphonious:lines that are musically pleasant to the ear bring euphony. There is a harmony and a beauty to the language, which is what many poets, are often after. 3- The last sound is (cacophony). Cacophony: a rough and harsh sounding can be used to bring attention. It is discordant language that can be difficult to pronounce. -The vowels are in general more pleasing than the consonants, for the vowels are musical tones, whereas the consonants are merely noises. -How good poet will behave with the sounds? -Good poets however will not necessarily seek out the sounds that are pleasing and attempt to combine them in melodious combination. Rather, they will use euphony and cacophony as they are appropriate to content
In the making of a poem, pattern is one of the most important ways of building form and structure, and one of the most difficult to master. In classical verse, pattern was established by using traditional form and meter, where lines had set numbers of beats and rhymes and alliteration came at predictable places within the line.
What a well constructed poem must contain
A well constructed poem contains neither too little nor too much; every part of the poem belongs where it is and could be placed nowhere else; any interchanging of two stanzas, two lines, or even two words, would to extent damage the poem and make it less effective. What the poet should impose to make the poem in the perfect form? In addition to the internal ordering of materials- the arrangement of ideas, images, and thoughts, which we may refer to as the poem's structure- the poet may impose some external pattern on a poem, may give it not only an inside logical order but an outside symmetry, or form. Such formality appeals to the human instinct for design, the instinct that has prompted people, at various times to choose patterned fabrics for their clothing, carpets, curtains, and wallpapers. The poet appeals to our love of the shapely.The poem may be cast in one of three broad kinds of form: Continuous form, stanzaic form, and fixed form.
In continuous form, the element of design is slight. The lines follow each other without formal grouping, the only breaks being dictated by units of meaning, as paragraphs are in prose
In stanzaic form, the poet writes in a series of stanzas, that is, repeated units having the same number of lines, usually the same metrical pattern, and often an identical rime scheme. The poet may choose some traditional stanza pattern or invent an original one. Stanzaic form, like continuous form, exhibits degrees of formal pattern.A stanza form may be described by designing four things: The rime scheme (if there is one), the position of the refrain (if there is one), the prevailing metrical foot, and the number of feet in each line. Rime scheme is traditionally designed by using letters of the alphabet to indicate the riming lines, and x for unrimed lines. Refrain lines may be indicated by a capital letter, and the number of feet in the line by a numerical exponent after the letter.A fixed form is a traditional pattern that applies to a whole poem. In English poetry, though most of the fixed forms have been experimented with, perhaps only two- the limerick and the sonnet- have really taken hold. a- The limerick, though really subliterary form, will serve to illustrate the fixed form in general. b- The sonnet is less rigidly prescribed than the limerick. It must be fourteen lines in length, and it almost always is iambic pentameter, but in structure and rime scheme there may be considerable leeway. Most sonnet, however, conform more or less closely to one of two general models or types, the Italian and the English. 1- The Italian sonnet is divided usually between eight lines called the octave,using two rimes arranged abbaabba, and six lines called the sestet, using any arrangement of either two or three rimes: cdcdcd and cdecde are common patterns. The octave presents a situation and the sestet a comment, or the octave an idea and the sestet an example, or the octave a question and the sestet an answer. 2- The English or Shakespearean sonnet is composed of three quatrains and a concluding couplet, riming abab cdcd efef gg. Again, the units marked off by the rimes and the development of the thought often correspond
Initially, it may seem absurd that poets should choose to confine themselves in an arbitrary fourteen- line mold with prescribed meter and rime scheme. They do so partly from the desire to carry on a tradition, as all os us carry out certain traditions for their own sake. But, in addition, the tradition of the sonnet has proved useful because, like the limerick, it seems effective for certain types of subject matter and treatment. Though these cannot be as narrowly limited or as rigidly described as for the limerick, the sonnet is usually most effective when used for the serious treatment of love but has also been used for the discussion of death, religion, and related subjects. The sonnet tradition has also proved useful because it has provided a challenge : they will use unnecessary words to fill out the meter or inappropriate words for the sake of rime.
ood poets are inspired by the challenge: it will call forth ideas and images that might not otherwise have come. They will subdue by it; they will make it do what they require. And finally, there is in all form the pleasure of form itself
Plot Plot is the sequence of related events of which a story is composed, presented in a significant order. It is also, the narrative and thematic development of the story. There is no plot without causality. The plot is composed of many elements: Conflict Complications Rising Action Climax Falling Action 1. Conflict: The basic tension, the very unpleasant situation, or the challenge that propels a story's plot. There are three types of conflicts. Two of them are external, and the third one is internal. The first two conflicts are either a conflict between a person against another person or a conflict of a person against his environment. As for the internal conflict, it is about a person against him/herself. Whether the conflict is internal or external, they may also be physical, mental, emotional or moral. e.g. In the novel Tom Jones, Tom Jones and Sophia Western can't get married. This is because of the fact that Tom is only a foundling bastard and Sophia's father wants her to marry someone of her own social class. 2. Complications: The plot events that plunge the protagonist, the story's main character, further into conflict with the antagonist, a character, or a force. 3. Rising Action: The part of plot in which the drama becomes intense, rising towards the climax. For example, In Robinson Crusoe, Crusoe disobeys his father and goes out to sea. Crusoe has fantasies of success in Brazil, and prepares for a slave gathering expedition. 4.Climax: Is the plot's most dramatic and revealing moment, usually the turning point of the story. In this element, the situation gets worse or more difficult for the protagonist even if his situation is objectively improved. In Pride and Prejudice, the climax is shown very well when Mr. Darcy proposes to Elizabeth Bennet. In Tom Jones, the climax is reached when Tom is thrown into prison for killing Fitzpatrick. 5. Falling Action: Is the part that comes after the climax in a plot, when the drama subsides and the conflict is resolved. e.g. In Robinson Crusoe, Crusoe constructs a shelter, secures food supply, and accepts his stay on the island as the work of providence.
Suspense and Surprise:
First, what is suspense? Suspense is the quality in story that makes the reader ask about what is going to happen next. The first basis of suspense is the foreknowledge that something bad is going to happen.
There are two common devices for achieving suspense: 1. Element of Mystery: is an unusual set of circumstances for which the readers needs an explanation. 2. The second device is to place the protagonist in a dilemma. Dilemma is a position in which the protagonist must choose between two undesirable courses of action. As for the surprise, it is proportional to the unexpectedness of what happens; it is pronounced when the story departs radically from our expectation. If we know ahead of time, what is exactly going to happen in a story and why, there would be no suspense. But, as long as we do not know, whatever happens comes with an element of surprise.
The Ending of a Story:
First of all, The ending of the story must surprise the reader whether it is happy, unhappy, or undetermined. In the stories that have a happy ending, the protagonist must solve his problems, defeat the villain, win the girl and live happily ever after. On the other hand, an unhappy ending has a particular value for writers who wish us to think of life. It is more likely to raise significant issues. A story, therefore, may have an undetermined ending. In this kind of ending, no definitive conclusion is reached. Finally, the good plot must have artistic unity. There must be nothing in the story that is irrelevant to the total meaning, nothing that is theme only for its own sake or its own excitement.
Characters and plot are one substance. None of them can move without the movement of the other. Presenting Characters by the Author: There are two ways of presenting the characters, which are: 1. Direct Presentation. Here, the author tells us straight out or let someone else in the story tells us what the characters are like. The direct presentation has its own advantages and disadvantages. One of its advantages is being clear and economical. On the other hand, it can be scarcely used alone. In addition, it may not be emotionally convincing if it is not supported by the indirect presentation. 2. Indirect Presentation. In this type, the author shows us the characters in action. We are the one who infer what they are a like from their behaviors. To be convincing, characters should have three principles: 1. The characters must be consistent in their behavior. They always behave in one way unless there is a clear reason for behaving differently. 2. the characters must be motivated in whatever they do. We must be able to understand why they are acting in this way, if not immediately, at least by the end of the story. 3. The characters must be plausible. They must not be monsters of evil nor angels of virtue, but must be one of what could appear somewhere in the normal life.
Protagonist and Antagonist:
The story's protagonist is the central agent in generating the plot and is the story's main character. Examples of Protagonists: 1. In Pride and Prejudice, Elizabeth Bennet is the protagonist. 2. In Robinson Crusoe, Crusoe is the protagonist. 3. In Tom Jones, Tom Jones is the protagonist.
On the other hand, the antagonist is the character or force in conflict with the protagonist. Examples of Antagonists: 1. In Pride and Prejudice, the antagonist is the snobbish class- consciousness (Epitomized by Lady Catherine de Bourgh and Miss Bingley). 2. In Tom Jones, Blifil is the antagonist to Tom, the main character in the novel. Types of a Stories’ Characters: The characters in a story are either Flat or Round. 1. Flat characters: Are characters who appear only once or twice in a story. Their traits usually do not change. Also, minor characters should remain flat. Flat characters have two special kinds of characters, either static or stock. a) Static Character: Is a character that remains primarily the same throughout a story or novel. Events in the story do not change or motivate a static character. In Pride and Prejudice, Charles Bingley is static. b) Stock Character: Is stereotyped character which is recognizable to most readers whenever it occurs in fiction. The cruel step mother, the stupid thief, the handsome prince, and the mad scientist are examples of stock characters.
2. Round Characters: Are well developed characters that sometimes have contradictory traits. Major characters are usually round. A special kind of round character is the dynamic aka. developing character. Dynamic character: Is a character which changes during the course of a story or a novel. The change may be large or small; to the better or to the worse. e.g. In Pride and Prejudice, Elizabeth is a dynamic character. Theme Definition of Theme: Theme is the meaning or concept that we are left with after reading a piece of fiction. Theme can also be defined as the underlying meaning of the story. It is an answer to the question "what did you learn from this story"? In fiction, the theme is not intended to teach.
The Easiest Ways to Recognize the Theme: 1. Ask yourself this question, "what is the protagonist's biggest emotional decision to resolve the story's conflict"? 2. In a simple story, you may find the theme in a single sentence given by the author or through one of the characters. Not all stories have themes. In addition, the theme exists only in these cases: 1. When the author wants to reveal some facts about life. 2. When the author shows a concept or theory of life that the story illustrates. The Function of Interpretive Writers: 1. They do not want to state a theme but to vivify it. They do not write a story for illustrating a theme, but to bring alive some segments of human existence. 2. They do not wish to deliver theme simply to our intellects, but to our emotions, our senses, and our imaginations. Which Term of Theme is Preferable and Why? The critical term “theme” is preferable, for several reasons: 1. It does not consider the story as a preachment. On the contrary, the story's first object is enjoyment. 2. It should keep us from wringing a didactic pronouncement about life from every story we read.
While discussing the theme, we should keep in mind the following principles: 1. The theme should be expressible in the form of a statement with a subject and a predicate. 2. The theme should be stated as a generalization about life. 3. We must be careful not to make the generalization larger than the justified by the terms of the story. 4. The theme is the central and unifying concept of a story: a- It is important for all the major details of the story. b- The theme is not contradicting to any detail in the story. c- The theme cannot rely upon an unclear fact in the story. 5. There are many ways of stating the theme of a story. As long as presenting a view of life is fulfilled, the view may be stated in more than one way. 6. We should avoid any statement that reduces the theme to some familiar saying (cliché) that we have heard all our lives. Examples of Themes: 1. In Pride and Prejudice, we can say that the themes of the novel are: a- Love b- Reputation c- Social class 2. In Robinson Crusoe, themes are: a- The ambivalence of mastery b- The necessity of repentance c- The importance of self awareness. 3. In Tom Jones, themes are: a- Virtue as action rather than thought. b- The impossibility of stereotypical categorization c- The tension between Art and Artifice.
In the same way that a painter uses shape, color, perspective and other aspects of visual art to create a painting, A fiction writer uses character, plot, point of view, theme and various kinds of symbolism and language to create artistic effect in fiction. POINT OF VIEW: (Who is telling the story?, is it the narrator or the main character) Point of view in fiction refers to the source and scope of the narrative voice.
First person point of view:
usually identifiable by the use of the pronoun "I", a character in the story does the narration. He is maybe a major character and is often its protagonist. OR may also be a minor character, someone within the story but not centrally involved, as when a story is told by a character who is not active in the plot but has observed the events. In this kind of point of view, what can be shown is limited to the character's observation and thoughts. and any skewed perceptions in the narrator will be passed on the reader.
Second person point of view:
This narrator speaks directly to the reader: "You walk in the room and what do you see? It's Mullins again, and you say, 'Out. I've done with him.'" This point of view is rare primarily because it is artificial and self-conscious. It seems to invite identification on the part of the reader with the narrator, but it often fails.
Third person point of view:
It occurs when the narrator does not take part in the story. e.g. "I don't learn from my mistakes" might become in the third person," she never learns from her mistakes"
a-Third person omniscient: the narrative voice can render information from anywhere, including the thoughts and feelings of any of the characters.
b-Third person limited: The narrative voice can relate what is in the minds of only a select few characters.
c-Third person objective: The narrator renders explicit, observed details and does not have access to the internal thoughts of characters or background information about the situation.
SYMBOLS: (symbols represents an idea, quality, or concept larger than itself)If an image in a story is used repeatedly and begins to carry multiple layers of meaning, it may be significant enough to call a symbol. Symbols are often objects, like a rose, or they may be parts of a landscape, like a river. While a normal image is generally used once, to complete a scene or passage, a symbol is often referred to repeatedly and carries meanings essential to the story. Some symbols are universal, like water for cleansing, but others are more culturally based. In some African societies, for example, a black cat is seen as good luck. Fiction writers use cultural associations as well as meanings drawn from the context of the story to create multiple levels of meaning. a-The meaning of literary symbol must be established and supported by the entire context of the story. A symbol has its meaning inside not outside story.b-To be called a symbol, an item must suggest a meaning different in kind from its literal meaning.c-A symbol has a cluster of meanings.
(..say one thing, but mean another)A term with a range of meanings, all of them involving some sort of discrepancy or incongruity. It should not be confused with sarcasm which is simply language designed to cause pain. Irony used to suggest the difference between appearance and reality, expectation and fulfillment. Kinds of Irony:
a-Verbal irony: the opposite is said from what is intended.(writer say thing, but means another)
b-Dramatic irony: the contrast between what a character says and what the reader knows to be true.
c-Irony of situation: discrepancy between appearance and reality, or between what is and what would seem appropriate.
ESCAPE AND INTERPRETATION:
why bother to read FICTION?? For ENJOYMENT and UNDERSTANDING)
FICTION is like food. Some is rich in protein and vitamins; it builds bone and sinew. Some is highly agreeable to the taste but not lastingly supporting. ESCAPE FICTION is of the latter two sorts. The harmless kind bears on the face of it what it is. It pretends to be nothing other than pleasant diversion and never ask to be taken seriously. INTERPRETATIVE FICTION is pretend to give a faithful treatment of life as it is, but through its shallowness it subtly falsifies life in every line. Escape literature:is that written purely for entertainment to help us pass the time agreeably. it takes us away from the real world and to forget our troubles.* it has as its only object pleasure.
Interpretive literature: is written to broaden and deepen and sharpen our awareness of life. It takes us, through the imagination, deeper into the real world and enable us to understand our troubles. * it has as its object pleasure plus understanding.#
The difference between them does not lie in the presence or absence of a" Moral". The story that in all of its incidents and characters is shallow may have an unimpeachable moral , while the interpretive story may have no moral at all in any conventional sense.#The difference does not lie in the absence or presence of "Facts". The historical romance may be full of historical information and yet be pure escape in its depiction of human behavior.# The difference does not lie in the presence or absence of an "element of fantasy". The differences between the two kinds of literature is deeper and more subtle than any of these distinctions.
Escape writers: they are like inventors who devise a design for our diversion. Also, they are full of tricks and surprises.
Interpretive writers: they are discoverers because they take us out into the midst of life . and take us behind the scenes, where they show us the mirrors and seek to make clear the illusions.
THE SCALE OF VALUE:(Literary judgment depends ultimately on our perceptive, intelligence, and experience)* Every story is to be initially judged by how fully it achieves its central purpose . In a good story every element works with every other elements for the accomplishment of the central purpose. It follows that no element in the story may be judged in isolation.* Once a story has been judged successful in achieving its central purpose, we may apply a second principle of judgment. A story if successful, may be judged by the significance of its purpose.if a story's only aim is to entertain, whether by mystifying, surprising, thrilling, affecting to laughter or tears, we may judge it of less value than a story whose aim is to "reveal".When a story provide serious statement about life, we may measure it by the breadth and depth of that relation.
*There are no appointed officials to whom we can apply for certain information.*Our only passports are our own good judgments based on our collected experience with both literature and life.
It Is an imitation of an action. A representation of carefully selected actions, by living people on a stage in front of an audience.
2) Drama needs:
1) Actors / Actresses
2 ) Stage
3) Elements of Drama:
،¤ Plot: The sequence of events or incidents of which the story is composed.
،¤ Conflict: It is a clash of actions, ideas, desires or wills. It creates some kind of tension in the play. There are 3 kinds of conflicts:
a- A person against person.
b- A person against environment.
c- A person against himself / herself. Conflict in his / her own nature; may be physical, mental, emotional, or moral.
،¤ Action: It is the act and the movement of the events and not the people in the play. It goes from the beginning of the play and then rising action to climax (the highest point,) after that, the falling action ends to reach solution.
The diagram From rising action to Climex then falling action to end.
* Gostaph (a German), in his book, he wrote the "Technique of Drama".
The diagram of rising action to climex then falling action to end.
،¤ Subtext : The motives of the characters.
،¤ Characters : Individuals who acts the play. They are represented in two ways:
A- Direct presentation : Author tells us straight out, by exposition or analysis, or through another character.
B- Indirect Presentation : Author shows us the character in action, the reader infers what a character is like from what she/he thinks, or says, or does.
C- Character type:
،¤ a flat character : is known by 1 or 2 traits.
،¤ a round character : is complex and many-sided.
،¤ a stock character : is a stereotyped character ( a mad scientist, the absent-minded professor, the cruel mother-in-law).
،¤ a static character : remains the same from beginning of the plot to the end.
،¤ a dynamic (developing character) undergoes permanent change.
،¤ Dialogue: Is the text, the script or the scenario.
،¤ Theme: The underline meaning that happening in the plot. The message of the play.
،¤ Costume: Dresses for the roles.
،¤ Subtext: Motives of the characters.
4) Types of drama: Tragedy, comedy and tragic comedy.
Aristotle's definition of tragedy : A tragedy is the imitation in dramatic form of an action that is serious and complete, with incidents arousing pity and fear where with it effects a catharsis of such emotions. The language used is pleasurable and through out appropriate the situation in which it is used. The chief characters are noble personages and the actions they perform are noble actions.
- Tragedy is the main source of drama.
- It was produced before comedy.
Is a fictional work in which the material is selected managed primarily in order to interest and amuse the audience.
Types of comedy:
1) Weeping comedy.
2) Laughing comedy.
3) Comedy of intrigue.
4) Sentimental comedy.
The Beginning of Drama :
Where did does the word "Tragedy" come from?
Tragedy: comes from the word (Tragos), the Greek word for goat, some tribes in difficult time when there are no harvest they go to the (escape goat) to blame Tragos, they will sacrifice the goat, it is a gift to god.
- The first tragedies were merely dances around sacrificial goat or songs from a chorus dress as goat, goat considered as the most fertile animal.
Where does comedy come from?
From Komos, meaning revel, a sort of a rough country party which honored the God of vegetation. A suffering God who dies and comes to life again. The main purpose of comedy is to make us laugh at the foolish of man kind.
- They celebrate the harvest, it's connected with the happiest time.
- Tragedy ،ْ deals with the falls of a man from power. This fall is brought by unsuspected flaw in this character or by some specific sin.
So drama comes from this relation between men and God, it comes from religious ritual.
* Greek Drama: Greek are used to have chorus who sing for the God of life and fertility (festival for the God of life) who is Dionysus. One of them pretends to be the God of life and then we can here a dialogue. Greek dramas where performed in open theaters, no microphone, they used to wear sad or happy masks, to convey meaning, also they used hand gesture, the mainly rely on the movement of the body.
- Drama during this age basically based on the relation between man and God.
* Roman Drama: Based on the relation between man and man, and social life between people in the society. Drama soon flourished in Rome.
- 1410 ،ْ the end of the Roman empire, before Rome has collapsed people last interest in drama.
- In 378, Christianity became the official religion of Rome, ever since that time, the Roman drama became obscene, it showed violence, immorality. As a result it attacked by Christianity, religious people a hacking drama, it was less popular.
- During middle age / medieval drama: There were no proper plays, only religious plays. It is called liturgical or religious drama, it makes people understand Christianity, it expressing religion by acting some biblical stories, a religious play on the church. During middle age there were different types of religious plays:
1) Mystery plays:
It was acted by people from the same class such as: bakers, smiths،* and so on. Every profession has its own mystery.
2) Miracle plays:
Miracles performed by saints after they die, they became important so they can do miracles.
3) Morality plays: it was not like the previous ones, not just religious stories or preaches. It is educational, it teaches people some thing.
4) Interlude: It means the break between the courses or meals, these kind of play it was acted indoors. It was more sophisticated, it has elaborate scenery, lightening, stage effect it's purely for entertainment rather than teaching, it was written in Latin.
Important facts in the history of Drama:
* Mystery- Miacle- Moralily and interlude Plays were written in middle age after the break of the Roman empire. * Greeks and Romans are the first to introduce drama. * 1550 ،ْ The beginning of the actual theater in London. * Theaters were built especially for acting, in the past people used it to act in the churches or the street they called them ¨C(street pageant)- players carry there clothes and the stuff they need in a wagon and story acting, they also act in the (Inn of courts)- it is like hotels, the acters perform in the middle. * The theater ،ْ it is the name of the first theater that was established for acting, it was built by James Burbage. * 1576 ،ْ the official date of drama, The theater was built at this date, after the theater another theater was built which is the (Globe). * Many theaters were outdoor for example: the Rose, the Curtain, the Swan, the Hope, the Fortune, the Boar's Head, the Red Bull. These all are public theaters.
English Renaissance Drama was the Golden age of Drama, during this period of line many great writers, poets, scienhs appeared. Shakespear, is the most well knowh play Wright, every body knows about him or at least heard about him, but he was one percipient in a Great flowering of Drama in the Renaissance.
Influence of Renaissance drama:
1- Native Tradition: The early medieval plays : mystery, miracles, Interlude.
2- Humanism: It was a huge movement, human's achievement were encouraged, revival of classical work, painting, literature. There was stress on human achievement.
3- Classicm: That meaning the classical works of the Roman and The Greek, it helps in forming and shoping the drama of Renaissance.
4- Seneca: Introduced revenge tragedy, it was very violent, he specialized in tragedy. He introduced closed drama ،ْ it meant to be read rather than to be acted, it is full of long phrases.
5- Platus and Terence: They are comedy Play wrights, they wrote comedy of intrigue.
6- Machiavelli: He wrote a book called "The prince", his book was translated to English and influence Renaissance drama.
Renaissance means: A rebirth, a beginning of a new era in England in which there was a huge cultural movement.
1) Renaissance period is the time of exploration and discoveries. New sciences appeared and flourished. Many of the classical works of Latin and Greek were translated to English during this period.
2) Humanism : Man became the center of the universe and his achievements were encouraged. So man broke free from the ignorance he was living in during the middle ages.
3) Religion : before Renaissance people used to fight over religion, they had to hide it, many wars were caused by religion. But in the Renaissance there was no more fighting between people over the religion.
4) It was a time of a change, a change to the better, the values change which were hard.
5) Before this period classes were really defined, people were very rich or very poor, there was no middle class. But during the Renaissance the middle class developed.
6) Renaissance Drama includes Elizabethan drama, Jacobean drama and Caroline drama.
* Private theaters are like Black Friars, and Burbage. The ordinary people cannot attend these theaters. * The Renaissance drama was strongly influenced by the Latin and the Roman drama. * The first Renaissance comedy is (Roister Doister Ralph) 1553, it was written by Nicholas Udall. * Renaissance first tragedy is (Gorboduc) 1562, it was written by Thomas Sackville and Thomas Norton, both of them were lawers, they were so much influenced by the Latin play wrights.
Features of the Renaissance Drama:
1) Secular : Not religious, it doesn't teach people the religion, but it is about the relationship between people.
2) Realistic : it deals with social issues.
3) Egocentric : Man was the center of the universe, he is important, the idea of over reach. Typical protagonist who wants to achieve more, he is the center of the play.
4) Preoccupied with form: It take the shape of Latin Drama which states that the play has to be with 5 acts, the play has to keep the unity of time, the place and action. The play shouldn't exceed 24 hours, all the events have to be in one country in one place.
5) No Female actresses: Women were not allowed to act on a stage, young boys act the role of women.
6) Minimal stage properties: There was no elaborate scenery, but indoors theaters have.
7) Elaborate costumes :
8) Blank verse: Plays were written in blank verse it is a poetic form, but unrhymed.
Major schools in the Renaissance:-
Elizabethan playwright 1558 ¨C 1603, pre-Shakespearian university wits.
- John Lyly - Thomas Kyd.
- George Peele - Christopher Marlowe.
- Robert Green.
Jaacobean playwright 1603 ¨C 1625, An old school influenced by Shakespeare.
- Thomas Dekker
- Thomas Heywood.
- John Webster
Satiric Group: Ben Jonson ( The groups that influenced by him). The son of Ben Jonson who followed him in his style.
- George Chapman
- John Marston
- Thomas Middleton.
The Romantic playwrights:
- John Day
- Francis Beaumont
- John Fletcher
Caroline Play wrights : 1625 ¨C 1642
- Philip Massinger
- James Shirley
- John Ford.
5) Dramatic Techniques:
Prologue: Introduction of the play, the argument of the play introduced by the choirs.
Epilogue: Some body commenting on the play to teach the audience a moral lesson.
Soliloquy: A character talking to the audience about his feeling, his desire, his motives, future plan. The character is alone by himself on the stage.
Aside: Happen when the characters on the stage are engaged in a conversation and one character commenting, but they do not hear what he is saying. It meant to be heard only by the audience.
Dumb Show: a play only acted physically with no words being uttered. It is a silent play which helps in representing the theme of the play.
A play -with in- a play: It is acted with in the play, it has words, to entertain the audience.
The Spanish Tragedy by Thomas Kyd
It is one example of many Plays that were written during the Renaissance hime:-
The theme of the play :
It is about revenge and justice, love and memory. The play is mainly about Heronimo's revenge, it tells us also that revenge is not equal to justice because in revenge there is ،*.
Irony frame: The prologue lets us know that every thing is going to end. Sadly, their fates are determined since the beginning of the play. Therefore, everything that happens afterwards become Ironical.
For example: We know that the marriage will be done.
The main Characters in the Spanish Tragedy :
Ghost of Andrea, a Spanish courtier, Revenge.
Lorenzo: Machiavellian, the villain. The duke's son.
Bel-Imperia: An important character, She represent the characteristic of the modern woman (a new kind of character.) She rebels against her society, tries to assert her identity. She is also Lorenzo's sister.
Victory of Portugal ،ْ Balthazar: His son
Hieronymus: The major character, the play was called by his name Marshal of Spain.
Horatio: Andreas's friend. Hieronimo's Son.
Alexandro + Villuppo: Miner characters.
Isabella: Horatio's mother.
Setting: It takes place during the war between Spain and Portugal in 1580, this battle was called Al-Kantara
Example about protagonists:
In Volpone, by Ben Jonson, Volpone is the protagonist.In The Way of The world, by William Congreve, Mirabell is the protagonist and who controls the action of the play.
Example about antagonist:
In The Way of the World, Fainall and Mrs. Marwood perform the roles of the antagonists and villains in the play.
Example about the setting: In The Way of the World, the setting in the first act is in a fashionable chocolate-house. In the second act, the setting is in Jame's Park, and in the remaining three acts in Lady Wishfort's house.
Example about theme:
In The Way of the World, the major theme is indicated by Congreve in the title itself. The phrase, the way of the world, indicates that life is filled with unsavory and sordid facts and humorous follies, even in the proper eighteenth-century society depicted in the play
.Example about the rising action: In The Way of the World, the problem arises from the fact that half of Millamant's fortune of six thousand pounds is under Lady Wishfort's control and willbe given to her only if she marries the suitor chosen by her.
Example about climax:
In Volpone, the climax is when Volpone reveals himself to the senate.In The Way of the World, the plot rises to climax when Sir Rowland's wooing of Lady Wishfort is interrupted by the arrival of an anonymous letter sent by Mrs.Marwood in order to reveal Mirabell's plot.
Example about the falling action: In Volpone, the falling action is when the judges send Volpone, Corvino, Corbaccio, and Voltore to various punishments. Example about flat characters:
In Volpone, Celia and Bonario are flat characters because they remain the voice of virtue, goodness and loyalty in the play.In The Way of the World, Witwoud and Petulant are flat characters because they remain foolish in the whole play.
Example about round characters:
In Volpone, Corvino is a very good example about the round characters because in the play, he is changed from a jealous husband to not at all only because of money.In The Way of the World, Lady Wishfort is dynamic character. That's because at the end of the play, her feeling is changed toward Mirabell, and she allows her niece to marry him without loosing half of the fortune.
Example about the stereotyped characters:
In The Way of the World, Lady Wishfort is a good example about the stereotyped character. She is the widow who desperately wants another husband.
Example about symbols:In Volpone:
1- Ben Jonson portrays Venice as a symbol of decadence, as a highly competitive, immoral and ruthless city where self-interest prevailed. 2- The play employs much religious symbolism and Volpone himself prevents religious language and imagery in the adoration of his "saint", his gold.
Example about irony:
In Volpone, the central irony is while greed drives the search of money, power, and respect, it ends up making everyone in the play look foolish, contemptible, and poorer, both spiritually and financially.
First and Second Response
When your teacher asks you to write your first and second response in drama, how will you write it?
First of all, before writing your response as a paragraph, reed the whole play or at least its summary. In the beginning of the paragraph, write the author's name, then the kind and the setting of the play. Another thing is that you should talk about the background of the play. You will find the background's information in the beginning of the book before the prologue. Then, tell your teacher who you think is the protagonist of the play, and why you think so. After that, define the main idea of the play. Furthermore, state an important moment in the play. Finally, the last thing that should be included in your response is to tell if you were teaching this play what you would emphasize.
On the other hand, in my opinion, writing the second response is much easier than writing the first one. In the second response, you will only write about what you think of the play and what ideas have changed in your mind before and after your teacher's explanation.
Example about the first response:
The School for Scandal
The play was written in 1777, and was acted in London. On that century, the audience had been aristocratic; now it was largely middle-class, bourgeois in sentiment, highly respectable. The kind of plays that preferred was sentimental rather than witty, melodramatic rather than ironic. Fashion and ruthlessness no longer appealed. Kindness was portrayed, lovers and their problems were treated with more sensitivity and there was rather less of the stark, sharp conflict between parents and children, between the old and the young. In this play, Sheridan admonishes the audience to avoid either creating scandals or listening to tales of the scandals of others. He also reminds the audience that appearances are not all they seem and they should look beneath the surface to find the true worth of men and women instead of listening to the reports that other people give. The play has more than one major characters "Mr. Peter and Lady Teazle". The kind of play is comedy of manner. The play has an obvious turning point; the falling screen. When the screen has fallen, Mr. Peter knew that his wife has a relation ship with Joseph Surface, and not with Charles Surface. After that also, Mr. Peter and his wife had better life because they decided to stop argument. One of the moments that I see is important is when Joseph and Charles knew that the man that came to both of them was their own uncle "Mr. Oliver". Finally, if I were teaching this play, I would emphasize the blessing that Allah gave us which is "Islam". Because we are Muslims, we rarely face such these problems. Thanks to God that in our religion, every wife should be faithful to her husband, and on the other hand, every husband should be faithful to his wife.
The Way of the World
The thing that I can only say about this play is that it's very much complicated. If I were a teacher, I would never teach this play. That's because it contains much immorality. It's against our culture, against our beliefs and against our society. I didn't like it at all. I can only criticize it, and not admire it. When I read it, I felt as if I were watching a Mexican show. These kinds of shows always depict married men that don't love their wives, and have other darlings. On the other hand, they always show married women that don't love their husbands and have other sweethearts.
ما هي الخصائص المميزة للادب الانجليزي عن سائرة من اللغات ؟
ما هي العناصر الاساسية للادب الانجليزي ؟
ما هي العناصر الفرعية للادب الانجليزي ؟
What is literature
Literature is a term used to describe written or spoken material. Broadly speaking,
why do we read literature
"Literature" is used to describe anything from creative writing to more technical or scientific works, but the term is most commonly used to refer to works of the creative imagination,
What is literature consist of
Including works of poetry, drama, fiction, and nonfiction.
what made the literature is different from other language
why people study literature
escape from reality
look at one's experience
there are 2 type of the literature
SOMETHING THAT WOULD TEACH US A LESSON OF LIFE
جمالي - فني
ART FOR THE SAKE OF ART
what are the literal form that literature have !!!!!!
there are 3 IMPORTANT genre
In this material
we will have the following
@!^_^!@ How to read a poem
The element of the poetry
How can u develop your understanding and appreciation of poetry !!!
apply the 5 steps of how to read a poem here
The Man He Killed
Had he and I but met
By some old ancient inn
We should have sat down to wet
Right many a nipperkin
but ranged as infantry
And staring face to face
I shot at him as he at me
And killed him in his place
I shot him dead because
Because he was my foe
Just so : my foe of course he was
tha's clear enough , although
He thought he'd list , perhaps
Off-hand-like---- just a I
Was out of work - --- had sold his traps
No other reason why
yes ; quaint and curious was is
you shoot a fellow down
you'd treat , if met where any bas is
Or help to half - a - crown
Thomas Hardy ( 1840 - 1928 ) ok
1- read a poem more than one time !!
2- keep the dictionary by you and use it !!!
3- read so to hear the sound of the words in your mind !!
4- always pay careful attention to what the poem is saying !!!
5- practice reading poems aloud