productive morpheme the ed ending to express past tense is a productive morpheme.
a morpheme that can be attached regularly to any appropriate stem. The formation of the past tense with the ed ending is a productive process, a new verb that enters the English language will be formed with this morpheme, thus,
lexical information is syntactically represented.
those DPs that cannot have a binder within the binding domain. .
a name, e.g. John, Wendy Smith, the Beatles. Within the DP it appears as an NP (as opposed to pronouns)
an operator that is interpreted like quantificational pronouns like every,
a determiner that expresses a definite or indefinite amount or number of the nominal expression it modifies, e.g.
quasi-argument (like seem).
the subject of weather-verbs
(it in It's raining) and potentially there in existential there-constructions.
a process whereby the subject of an embedded infinitival clause
moves to the subject position of the verb selecting the clause.
In such structures the selecting verb is a one-argument verb selecting a clause
If the clause is non-finite, the subject of the embedded clause is not assigned Case within the clause, but since the subject position of the selecting verb is empty it can move there to be case-marked.likely in Peter is likely to win.
an adjective inducing raising, e.g.
raising verb seem, appear.
a verb inducing raising, e.g.
something that refers to something. Lexical DPs are referential, e.g. anaphors are not, they gain reference by coindexation with a referential element.
relative clauses are adjoined to NPs, they give information about the nominal expression. .
a rule expressing the locality conditions on movement,
Restrictions on Movement.
where X, Y and Z are of the same type
restrictive relative clause
a clause which modifies a noun by restricting its application to one of a number of possibilities. Restrictive relatives come in three forms:
referential expression, a nominal with independent reference, e.g.
Peter as opposed to he or himself.
an adverb which modifies the meaning of the sentence, e.g.
two nodes that have the same mother.
a clause where a subject–predicate relationship is established but no inflectional element is present. The predicate can be expressed by an AP (I consider [her reliable]), a DP (I consider [her the best student]), or a PP (I want [these news in press]). Small clauses are often called verbless clauses but it is misleading since small clauses can contain VPs in certain cases like in I saw [him run away]. Such clauses are analysed as IPs where the zero agreement morpheme can be found as in several languages we find agreement markers on the subject and the predicate in these structures.
a nominal expression is specific if the speaker knows the identity of its reference. The sentence I am looking for a pen is ambiguous between a specific and a non-specific interpretation: the pen may be a certain pen the speaker has in mind or any pen may do.
the source of ambiguity is not lexical. The different interpretations can be explained by assigning different structural representations to the ambiguous expression, e.g. in the DP an analysis of sentences with mistakes the PP with mistakes can be interpreted either as referring to the analysis or sentences. The structural difference between the representations will be the placement of the adjunct PP: in the former meaning the PP is the adjunct of the DP analysis, in the latter case it is the adjunct of the DP sentences.
Structure Preservation Principle
no movement can alter the basic X-bar nature of structure, structures are projected from the lexicon at all levels.
that part of the lexical entry that states the categorial status of the complement.
a category under a main category, e.g. the category of
intransitive verbs is a subcategory of the verbal category.
PRO can be coreferent either with the subject or the object of the preceding clause depending on the main verb.
The verb promise is a subject-control verb, in the sentence
I promise [PRO not to destroy my brother's castle again] PRO is coreferent with the subject.
the movement of the subject from its base position (Spec,vP or Spec,VP) to a Case position (Spec,IP).
a descriptive cover term for the reverse order of the subject and the auxiliary in questions like
Can you dance?, see also I-to-C movement